4.1 Need for Curricular Adaptation, Accommodation and Modification

Today’s classrooms are diverse and inclusive by nature. Differentiation of instruction and assessment and the principles of universal design are now recognized practices for teachers. Both differentiation and universal design provide systematic approaches to setting goals, choosing or creating flexible materials and media, and assessment.  To undertake differentiation and universal design, teachers need to be aware of a range of accommodations (multiple means of representation, of expression, and/or of engagement) that may be necessary to help each student in the classroom succeed.  These accommodations may take the form of adaptations and/or modifications.    

Many students with special needs and significant learning challenges will be able to achieve the learning outcomes for subjects or courses with no or minor adaptations. Some may be able to achieve the learning outcomes of some subjects or courses with adaptations.  A small proportion will need to work on individualized outcomes, goals different than the curriculum; this is referred to as modification.

Curricular Adaptations are changes permissible in educational environments which allow the student equal opportunity to obtain access, results, benefits, and levels of achievement. These adaptations consist of both accommodations and modifications.

·      Some curricular adaptations do not fundamentally alter or lower standards or expectations in either the instructional or assessment phases of a course of study and can be designated as “accommodations.” These accommodations provide access to participate in the L.R.E. and an opportunity to demonstrate mastery of performance standards.

·      Accommodations are changes in course content, teaching strategies, standards, test presentation, location, timing, scheduling, expectations, student responses, environmental structuring, and/or other attributes which provide access for a student with a disability to participate in a course/standard/test, which DO NOT fundamentally alter or lower the standard or expectations of the course/standard/test.

·       Some adaptations do alter or lower standards or expectations and can be termed “modifications.” These modifications, although providing access, will necessitate careful selection of assessment components to achieve accountability for performance.

·       Modifications are changes in course content, teaching strategies, standards, test presentation, location, timing, scheduling, expectations, student responses, environmental structuring, and/or other attributes which provide access for a student with a disability to participate in a course/standard/test, which DO fundamentally alter or lower the standard or expectations of the course/standard/test

Nine Types Of Accommodations

1.     SIZE/QUANTITY - Adapt the number of items that the student is expected to learn or complete. (modification)

2.     TIME - Adapt the time allotted and allowed for learning, task completion, or testing. (accommodation)

3.     LEVEL OF SUPPORT - Increase the amount of personal assistance with a specific student. (accommodation)

4.     INPUT - Adapt the way instruction is delivered to the student (differentiated instruction). (accommodation)

5.     DIFFICULTY - Adapt the skills level, problem type, or the rules about how the student may approach the work. (modification)

6.     OUTPUT - Adapt how the student can respond to instruction. (accommodation)

7.     PARTICIPATION LEVEL - Adapt the extent to which a learner is actively involved in the task. (accommodation)

8.     ALTERNATE GOALS - Adapt the goals/expectations while using the same materials. (modification)

9.     PARALLEL/ALTERNATIVE CURRICULUM - Provide different instruction/materials and alternate activities to meet a student’s individual outcomes. (modification)

10.           SETTING- change in the setting or surrounding of the student. (accommodation)


Why is Curriculum Adaptation necessary?

·      Curriculum adaptation is a form of reasonable accommodation as mandated by the UNCRPD 2006, which facilitates the teaching-learning process when there are students with learning difficulties in the mainstream classroom.

·      Curriculum adaptations are made to simplify and reduce the content so that learners with difficulties can absorb the most critical part of the curriculum.

·      Adaptation of the curriculum ensures that all learners get access to quality and meaningful learning experiences.

·      Children with learning difficulties do not feel excluded when it comes to understanding the subject matter.

4.2 Adaptation, Accommodation and Modification for Pre –academic Curriculum

To be successful in adapting activities and materials for young children with disabilities, the following Key Ideas must be considered.

PLANNING FOR INCLUSION: Inclusion is a term that refers to involving young children with disabilities and their families in all activities that are typical for children of that age. Inclusion is a value that says that all children belong, regardless of their abilities, gender, race, or ethnic background. When including young children in typical early childhood settings, some planning will be needed to make sure it is successful for everyone. While you may not be able to predict every adaptation needed, work as a team with the family to plan for as many of the necessary adaptations as possible. Develop your plan by reviewing a typical day and identifying any potential times when adaptations might make an activity more successful. Review your adaptation plan after you have had an opportunity to observe the child in that activity.

ONLY AS SPECIAL AS NEEDED: One of the keys to adapting activities for young children with disabilities is to make the materials or activity only as special as needed. Materials for young children with disabilities don’t have to come from special catalogs or cost a lot of money. Often regular age-appropriate toys can be used with little or no adaptations. Use your own expertise and common sense!

YOU’RE NOT IN IT ALONE: Adapting materials involves a lot of creative thinking and is often easier when a team of people brainstorm ideas together. More people with more expertise provides more ideas! Talk to other teachers, therapists, or specialists working with the child and find out what ideas they have. The best resource for adaptation ideas is the child’s family. The family can provide years of experience and knowledge about their child. They may have already found the adaptation answer!

INDIVIDUALIZATION: Not all children with same disability label need the same adaptations. Children who have the same label are usually more different than they are alike. Therefore, it is important to think of adaptations for a particular child, not a disability. Have a number of different ideas available so that you always have a new idea.

DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE PRACTICE: One key characteristic of a quality early childhood program is a curriculum that is based on developmentally appropriate practice. A developmentally appropriate curriculum focuses on the learning characteristics of children at different developmental levels but individualizes for the unique interests, strengths and personalities of the child. When young children with disabilities are included in programs that use a developmentally appropriate approach, the types of individualizations that are already used for young children without disabilities must just be extended to meet the needs of all children.

PARTIAL PARTICIPATION: Partial participation refers to involving a child in an activity even if he can not perform all the steps of the activity. A child is partially participating in dressing if she pulls the shirt on over her head, but needs help to put on the sleeves. Some children with disabilities may not be able to do all the steps of an activity that their typically developing peers can do. However, the child with disabilities should still be involved in as much of the activity as possible. Identify what parts of that activity the child can do, and then develop adaptations or teaching strategies for the other parts of the activity.


        Make sure that there are clear paths between activity areas for children who may have difficulty moving from one place to another.

        Tape down edges of rugs so that little feet, wheelchairs or crutches don’t get caught on the edges.

        To make transition time easier for children who need to be in adapted chairs, place the chair on platform with wheels or in wagon. Make sure that the chair is safely attached to the platform or wagon before moving it.

        Have tactile path between areas for children who have difficulty seeing their way from one area to another. The tactile path may be a bookcase or wall that is trailed, or a different floor covering that is used to indicate the borders of an area.

        Allow children who move slowly the opportunity to leave an area first in order to minimize moving time and obstacles.

        Use a cue or cues to indicate the time to transition to another area. The cues used should be adapted to the needs of the individual children. Don’t be afraid to use combinations of cues. Playing a bell, musical instrument, or singing a clean-up song might be helpful for children who need an auditory cue. Turning the lights on and off or developing a picture cue for transition time might be a cue for child who needs a visual cue.


        Make sure there is a way for the child to be on the same level as the other children. If a child needs assistance in sitting on the floor to play with blocks, have adapted equipment available. Cut the legs off of a chair with arms and a high back. Use a bean bag chair that can be molded to the child’s needs. Have all children build with blocks on a table if no floor seating is available.

        Mark off the block area with bright tape or a texture to mark boundaries of the block area. This adaptation may be helpful for children who have difficulty seeing or staying in the boundaries without enhanced cues.

        Attach Velcro to blocks to help them stay together easily.

        Use a variety of types of blocks to match the physical needs of each child. Experiment with different types of blocks to find out what properties they have. Some blocks are easier to stack, some are easier to grab, some are light, some are heavy, some make noise, etc. Examples of different blocks are bristle blocks, magnetic blocks or marbles, blocks that fasten together using snaps, cloth blocks, or covered shoe boxes. Collect a variety.


        When using paint brushes, adapt handles to make them easier to grasp. Handles may be lengthened, shortened, built up with pipe insulation, attached to the hand using a velcro strap, or attached to a glove with velcro on the palm.

        Experiment with using other materials in painting projects that may be easier to grasp. Examples include: raw potatoes, sponges, squeeze paints, drinking straws to blow paint, or spin art with a switch adaptation. Line a shallow bucket with art paper and place a marble dipped in paint in the bucket. Tip the bucket to make the marble “paint” the paper.

        Tape drawing paper to table if more stability is needed. On an easel, use tape or paper clips to hold on to surface.

        Use large sized or finger tip crayons for children who have difficulty holding on to small crayons.

        Plan together. Parents, consultants, and caregivers need to set goals together. Ask to be a part of the team that develops and tracks the child’s Individualized Education Plan (IEP) so you can discuss activities, exercises, and supports needed to reach goals. Goals should be simple and should match the abilities of the child. Always discuss your ideas and plans with the family.

        Modify toys and equipment. Simple changes often can be made to regular toys. For example, you can help a child who has difficulty with stacking rings by simply removing every other ring. For a child who has difficulty holding a bottle, cover the bottle with a cloth sock so little hands can grasp it better.

        Make small changes in your child care environment. Slight adjustments in your child care environment may make the time that a child with special needs spends with you easier and more enjoyable for everyone. A quiet, private space for play may help an overactive child. A child with poor vision may benefit from an extra lamp in the play area. Removing a rug that slips will help a child who has trouble walking.

        Model appropriate behaviors. Children with special needs are sometimes timid about playing with others. You can show them how by being a play partner yourself. You might play a game with the child or pretend to go shopping together. As the child becomes more comfortable, you can invite other children to join your play activity.

        Teach specific words and skills that will show how to find a playmate and how to be a playmate. Learning how to look directly at another child when speaking or to say “May I play?” are big steps for some children.

        Teach typically developing children how to talk and play with children who have a disability. Talk to the children about what to do. For instance, gently touching the shoulder of a child with a hearing impairment or looking directly at him while talking are effective ways of getting that child’s attention.

        Look for strengths as well as needs. Avoid becoming too focused on a child’s disability. Treat each child as a whole person. Provide activities that will support a child’s strong points. Every child needs to feel successful and capable.

        Consult with parents, health care professionals, and early childhood specialists. Parents and specialists can provide specific information and suggestions for working with a child who has a disability. Do not be afraid to ask questions. Parents sometimes take it for granted that caregivers will know what to do.


4.3 Adaptation, Accommodation and Modification for Academics Curriculum

A curriculum includes the academic subjects and the sum total of experiences that a pupil receives through a variety of activities in the school, in the classroom, library, laboratory, play grounds, in informal contact between teachers and pupils.

Creating an inclusive culture in classroom will involve attending to the curriculum, which includes the components of a course of study. These consist of the syllabus, textbooks and needed teaching learning materials, teaching strategies/processes and assessment and evaluation processes. In discussing the efforts in curricular development and reform, National Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2005 underscores the significance of making curriculum “an inclusive and meaningful experience for children” stating “this requires a fundamental change in how we think of learners and the process of learning.” Attending to curriculum to define the classroom culture and the approach to the teachinglearning processes is thus a significant aspect of teacher’s work in fostering inclusivity in their work with students.

The teachers in an inclusive school have to teach all children together in a class. It is the responsibility of the school to provide a flexible curriculum that can be accessed by all students including CWSN. It is important that the school should provide enabling experiences so that children experience success in learning and achievement up to their potential. This is only possible if the teachers respond to the diversities present in an inclusive classroom through curriculum adaptations.

Curriculum adaptation involves differentiation to meet the needs of all students. The content, the teaching process, assessment and evaluation, and the physical environment may be modified to help students to achieve success in the classroom. The kind of activities chosen by the teacher, including group activities, must be flexible and reflect the background knowledge of small groups or individual students. The following shows the adaptations that are required in different areas for inclusive pedagogy.

However, the two terms adaptation and modification related to curriculum create some amount of confusion, perhaps misunderstanding. While adaptation refers to adjusting assessments, material, curriculum or classroom environment, to accommodate a student’s needs to enable him/ her to participate in and achieve the teaching-learning goals, modifications involve making changes to learning goals, teaching processes, assignments and/or assessments to accommodate a student’s learning needs.

In case of content, teaching and assessment, the following are some examples of curricular adaptations that indicate that these adaptations can be used for all children in the classroom and are not limited to CWSN. These strategies create a universal design of learning in inclusive classrooms.

Teachers teaching content using diverse strategies-These include strategies like verbal, visual, kinesthetically, written, proceeding from simple to complex, concrete to abstract, step by step, scaffolding, concept maps, projects, group work, peer tutoring, using prior knowledge, brainstorming, dramatisation, giving extra time, giving alternative activities, drill activities, shortening assignments, organizing excursions/ trips, using large fonts, Braille or tacitly coded material, toys or blocks, carbon or xerox copy of notes, hand puppets, real life experiences, real objects, multiple choice questions, children’s literature, magazines and journals, etc.

Students expressing learning in diverse ways- These include strategies like oral, written, tactual, gestures, drawing, acting, ICT, framing questions, paired reading, storytelling, song, rhymes, role play, discussions, debates, language games, flash cards, quizzes, graphic organizers, outlining passages, highlighting, and paper cutting/ folding, etc.

Using supplementary material like artifacts, calculators/talking calculators, Taylor frame, abacus, Brailler, geometrical kit, Geo – board, Tactile board, Geometric shape board (for circle, graph, representation), Tactile graph sheet (for bar-graph, histograph etc), 3-d blocks and figures, manipulatives, flash cards or pictures on paper, posters, chalkboard, projection screens, computers, books on tape and computerized text reader, screen readers, voice synthesis, scanners, daisy books, multimedia gadgets like CDs, MP3s, talking watches and talking clocks, videos/movies, modeling material like clay, textured objects/raised line paper, games and puzzles, etc, can help all children learn.

Strategies of Curricular Adaptation for an Inclusive Classroom

In an inclusive classroom environment, quality education would depend upon a number of factors. Crucial amongst these are understanding of special needs of learners, infrastructural facilities, modified environment that is warm, welcoming and inclusive, trained motivated teachers, flexible educational content (what is being taught), strategies for teaching and evaluating that meet the needs of all children that focus on meaning, active learning and interaction, sufficient teaching time and its optimal use by teachers, access of every child to teaching learning materials and continuous onsite support to the teacher by specialists if required. The following are examples of some needs and strategies for curricular adaptations for CWSN.

Cognitive Impairments and Intellectual Disability (ID)

When we discuss students who are not able to learn or, express their learning, it is important to understand that this behavior is not a result of sensory, physical or motor impairments. These learning needs are related to the influences and impacts on the brain. Impairments in cognitive, intellectual functioning may reflect in one or more of the following areas:

        Visual and/or auditory perceptions;

        Meta-cognition (knowing about one’s own thinking and learning what skills, strategies are needed to plan and carry out tasks);

        Retaining information and memory – for example, transferring knowledge from one task to another;

        Information processing – attending to information from different senses;

        General intellect (Intelligence);

        Physical activity (over activity or under activity, coordination, balancing, drawing, discriminating between directions and positions – right and left, up and down, etc.);

        Attention and concentration – short attention span, distractions, impulsivity;

        Eye hand coordination, for example, in geometry, handwriting and diagrams, etc;

        Language (reading, writing, spellings, speaking) and understanding Mathematics;

        Exposure to experiences (limited experiences);

        Ability to change according to situation;

        Expression of needs and emotions;

        Thinking, reasoning, problem solving and understanding;

        Social activity and problems of selfregulation (for example, tantrums and lack of understanding of social rules/inhibitions, peer relationships, not understanding the meaning of what people say);

         Communication skills and,

        Over or under sensitive to sounds, smells and touch.

 The following are some exemplary strategies for curriculum adaptations:


        Long lessons/stories can be divided into smaller parts with a meaningful beginning and ending.

        Poems can be taught through actions and repetitions.

        Students with autism need more real experiences and activities in order to learn something. For example, the concept of ‘turning’ can be taught by doing simple activities like using the fan regulator, tap, gas-stove knob, etc.

        New words can be taught using a visual dictionary.

        While using picture cards, limit to only two colours or use only primary colours as some children may have difficulty in differentiating minor differences in shades of colours.

        Enact poem while it is being read. Recite it with expressions.

        Frame questions for different sections of the lesson like introduction, assessment, etc. 8. Make use of paired reading to promote fluency in reading.


        For place value use scale with unit place having 9-blocks in one colour and another colour at ten’s place.

        Fractions can be taught through paper folding. While teaching the concept of money, children with ID can be introduced to rupees as paisa but its conversion may sometimes be difficult for them to understand.

        Concepts of measurement (tall, short), capacity/ volume (full, empty), weight (heavy, light), shapes (circle, triangle), etc., can be understood better through concrete things/objects, flash cards.

        ID students can be given clay to make different shapes. Moreover, instead of giving all shapes together, give one shape at a time.

        Always go step by step and provide guidance/ feedback at each step while solving a problem.


        Group activities will facilitate active participation and experiential learning. Activity based learning facilitates understanding scientific characteristics of the materials around, for example, different houses.

        The concept of rain can be demonstrated by playing recorded sound effects of thunder and rainfall with associated animal and insect sounds.

        Picture/flash cards can be used to introduce the objects that are not available, such as, nonregional plants.

        Pictures should be labelled and captioned.

        Make use of graphic organizers.

There are many factors that promote learning of CWSN in the classrooms and curricular adaptation is one such factor. The strategies described will not be universal for all CWSN and will benefit only those students who can use them. Nevertheless, when used by teachers, these will produce meaningful gains in performance of all students and not CWSN.

4.4 Adaptation, Accommodation and Modification for Co-Curriculum

Children with Disability seem to have an even harder time participating in extracurricular activities then classroom activities. Not only are there fewer activities catering to them, they also constantly face seclusion or discrimination from their peers. The purpose of education is to foster all round development of the individual. Therefore all-round development means intellectual, physical, and social development. Education plays a fundamental role but for an all-round development there is a need for striking a balance between classroom teaching and also co-curricular activities. Co-curricular activities are those which are undertaken side by side with the curricular activities. A co-curricular activity essentially takes place outside a typical reading and writing classroom experience. It gives the student an opportunity to develop skills that are not possible in a classroom setting.

Co-curricular activities can be divided in three broad areas:-

·      Some activities are for individual participation, that is the person participates in an activity like solo singing, solo dancing, playing an instrument, recitation, art & craft, athletics and other sports like swimming , skating , trekking . These activities can be less competitive and for some children with disability it’s a good way to start Co-curricular activities. The competitive element can be reduced even further by encouraging and praising the child for improving on their past performance.

·      Then there are cooperative activities where the members have to work together to help the team succeed. These are team games in sports, quiz and other team competitions. For some children this may be difficult but children can be supported with social stories and practice.

·      There are activities which are highly competitive like sports, and individual competition in areas of music, dance and other art forms. Some children with disability may thrive in competitive activities and some may find it difficult and will need to be introduced to it gently. Children need to learn not just how to win but also how to lose. The teacher needs to use his/her skill to help children cope with both.

The most important thing to remember is that co-curricular activities should be fun and enjoyable.

Using Co-Curricular Activities for Facilitating Learning

Co-curricular activities facilitate in the development of various domains of mind and personality such as intellectual development, emotional development, social development, moral development and aesthetic development. It also facilitate in Creativity, Enthusiasm, and Energetic domain. Co-curricular activities are defined as the activities that enable to supplement and complement the curricular or main syllabi activities. These are the very important part and parcel of educational institutions to develop the students’ personality as well as to strengthen the classroom learning.

Co-curricular activities are the true and practical experiences received by students. To a greater extent, the theoretical knowledge gets strengthened when a relevant co-curricular activity is organized related to the content taught in the classroom. Intellectual aspects of personality are solely accomplished by classroom, while aesthetic development, character building, spiritual growth, physical growth, moral values, creativity, etc are supported by cocurricular activities. Frankness and clarity in language and personality is supported by these activities. It helps to develop co-ordination, adjustment, speech fluency, extempore expressions, etc. among student both at the school as well as college levels.

·      Co-curricular activities enhance creativity: It gives students a chance to think out of the box and get creative ideas of their own. These activities give students a richer learning experience by giving them a chance to think in new ways to solve a problem or answer a question. Co curricular activities provide challenges for students that are different from academic challenges. Students have to come up ideas that are not always found in books. Especially where children have to make up a short play, skit, dance, design, drawing and painting. The disabled and non disabled children together, have to come up with ideas that are often original and creative. The students with disability if they are able to participate (with support) may develop a more positive attitude towards their own disability.

·      Enhancement of Motor Coordination: Eye-hand Coordination, Gross & fine Motor Skills improve, as a result of taking part in different types of co curricular activities. This automatically helps to improve other major skill areas like, Self-help, Writing and Leisure Skills. Most of the co-curricular activities are physically active and get the students out their desks to try out new things in a practical way. Sports, yoga and Dance enhances body & space awareness.

·      Enhancement of Social Skill: Peer interaction, Social Rules, both Verbal & Non-verbal Communication, sharing, turn-taking, understanding group or team effort, leadership quality can be developed by participating in co-curricular activities. It can facilitate emotional development through winning, loosing, preparing and trying. Children learn to deal with authority and peer relationship in a structured and safe environment. Extracurricular activities channelize energy and in a way that is beneficial for the child.

·      Enhancing Academic Skills: The class room curriculum teaches and educates the child about academic theories while co-curricular and extracurricular activities help the child to apply what he / she has learnt. Different Co-curricular activities enhance academic skills, like- science, math, language, geography etc, and make these subjects more meaningful in their daily life. For example through Games, children can learn concepts in math by keeping scores and time. Children learn languages like with words like - jump, run, throw, catch, speed etc. Children learn the concept of timing and number, through dance and music.

·      Learn time management skills: Students participating in co-curricular activities learn to manage their time effectively, prioritize among different competing commitments, and be proactive and creative problem-solvers. Often, the students most engaged in co-curricula’s also have the strongest time management skills.

·      Enabling participation in Co-curricular activities of children with special needs: When considering co-curricular activities, teachers need to consider any assistance or adaptation the child may need. For playing music, a child with a visual impairment may be helped by scanning the music and then converting it to Braille. Students with a physical disability can find many musical instruments that have been modified in a wide variety of ways. In drama, students can learn their respective lines through the use of audiotapes or can even use screen readers if necessary. For students who have difficulty in perceiving where to stand on the stage, visuals or tactile markers can be given. Visual or tactile arrows can be marked on the stage to guide the movement of the students.

Assembly Time: For most schools, Assembly Time is a very important occasion. It is an opportunity to come together as a community, to share achievements and stories and to nurture a positive school ethos, where children feels valued and respected. Assembly time is a calm, happy, yet purposeful space where there are high expectations in terms of behavior.

Purposes of a school assembly include the following:

·      To develop a feeling of affiliation and unity among students. b. To acquaint students with the school program more clearly.

·      To develop in students a sense of identity with the school.

·      To enable students to share their experiences, stories, anecdotes with others.

·      To provide them training in good social behavior desired in public life.

Some children with disabilities like those with Autism, ADHD or other related issues may have difficulty participating as Assembly is mostly a social activity. The following points can help children who have difficulty in participating:

·      Social Stories regarding what is Assembly Time and what the children are supposed to do during Assembly.

·      Structured Calendar: Days when Assembly Time will take place in the school will be mentioned in the Calendar to increase predictability.

·      Individualized Schedules: Assembly Time will be visually represented through schedules to each student with disability who may require it.

·      Visual Supports: like- Foot-prints on the floor, which will give the students visual instruction that they are supposed to keep their feet on the foot-prints during the Assembly Time. The student then knows where to stand. The foot prints can be cut out of materials like plastic sheets or cardboards. Some children may just need a specific mark on floor made with chalk.

·      Wait Card: a ‘Wait Card’ will give the student visual cue that he or she has to wait during the Assembly Time. The card can have a drawing of a hand with the word “wait” written across it. The child learns that as long as the card is in his had he has to wait when the card is taken by the teacher the students can move to the next activity.

·      Reinforcement: Students can be reinforced with social praise, stars, smiley’s or other tangible reinforcers for behaviors like standing , waiting quietly , activities like- a speech, song etc. during Assembly Time.

·      Creating an Environment which is free from Sensory Overloading: For some children standing close to the sound system or near a light can cause huge sensory difficulties therefore such a child needs to stand where the sensory overload are reduced.

Recess time can be difficult for children with disabilities. Peers may avoid them and therefore they are left alone during this unstructured and mostly unsupervised time. Without proper structures in the playground, students may feel stressed and anxious. It is a time where some children with disabilities are at risk of being bullied and teased. Teachers can appoint a play ground buddy or circle of friends (that is few children who have a more inclusive attitude) to watch out for such children. The playground buddy’s or circle of friends can be encouraged to try to include the children with disability in their games.

The following strategies will help these children to participate:-

·      Putting the playground activities on individualized schedules.

·      Giving visual choices (Schedule) to the students during playground activities.

·      Developing appropriate social stories for the students to describe the playground, the games or activities played there, the game rules.

·      Organize a quiet place in the playground where students can go if feeling overwhelmed. This should be somewhere that is easily accessible and is linked to the play areas.

·      Organizing a ‘Buddy System’. A ‘Buddy’ is a responsible student who will support and guide the student with disability during the playground activities.

·      Making some neuro -typical students as ‘Playground Monitors’, whose responsibility should be maintaining general playground disciplines. While this system is less specific than a ‘Buddy System’, but it is still another safeguard for the students with disabilities and will ensure any inappropriate behaviors like- teasing and bullying in the playground, towards these special-need students will be reported.

·      The students with disabilities might be taught how to play the games in the playground first in an in-house situation with a limited peer group. Then these students will be given opportunity to participate in the playground activities with a larger group.

·      All children can be praised for socially appropriate behaviors or for following rules during the playground activities.

Games, Sports and Physical Activities; Communication is key for all relationships, and the lack of speech cum language can hinder the way children interact with their peers and caregivers. Finding adaptive ways to communicate and play with your nonverbal children can help possibly stimulate speech or facilitate cognitive growth. Like all children, children with disability need access to sports and games. Sporting games and activities can be modified to include people with disability. In some situations, people with disability can be included with no modifications at all, and in other situations modifications may be needed. Modifications may only be minor, such as a change in a rule or piece of equipment but may provide significant assistance to an individual. Sometimes major modifications are necessary, particularly for people with high support needs.

Modification may include:

·      Reducing the size of the court or playing in an area the where boundary has been redrawn with chalk to reduce the area of play.

·      Playing in a closed of area that is surrounded by wall or fence also helps children with certain disabilities like visual impairment and Autism to play safely and comfortably.

·      Practicing games indoor in a modified form and then taking it outdoors.

·      Lowering heights of basketball hoops , badminton net & volleyball nets .

·      Using balls that may be easier to control.

·      Using balls with bells inside or very bright so it is easier to track.

Enhancing skills Some sports require multiple skills like throwing, catching, dribbling, aiming at a goal. These skills can be enhanced in short sessions targeting the specific skill areas. These skills can be made into simple games with rules and scoring points. As skills improve children can participate more easily in the larger games.

Yoga and exercise

·      Rhythmic music can make Yoga and free-hand exercises interesting and fun to do.

·      Visual cues, for example- the pictures of ‘Ashanas’ or exercise can be used as a visual instruction, so that the students can follow which ‘Ashana’ or exercise they are supposed to do next.

·      Use of cut-out mount boards on the floor, so that the individual’s disability will know where to place their head while lying down on the floor before starting the ‘Ashanas’.

·      Use of pictures to show how “Ashanas” should be.

Visual and Performing Arts: Art reflects human emotions and human beings spontaneously express their frame of mind through various art forms. Thus the intellectual mind merges with the artistic streak, giving birth to art. The expression is reflected in various styles like singing, dancing, drawing, Performing Arts: Music, Dance and Drama and Architecture painting, acting, sculpture. Some of these are expressed through live performances and others through visual arts. Sketching, painting, sculpture are visual arts. Singing, dancing, acting are attributes of performing art. Visual arts and performing arts play a significant role in the overall development of students with disabilities. Learning and then performing allows children with opportunities to shine and perform and increase their self-esteem. Learning and performing teaches self-control and discipline. But children with disabilities will need support and accommodation.

4.5 Adaptation, Accommodation and Modification for School Subjects

Adapting to Difficult Subjects

This is the most common problem for new teachers to encounter with their curriculum, but we'll explore some ways to balance your time later.

Some topics are just difficult for students to understand. They may be particularly abstract, or perhaps they bring together many smaller topics in a complicated way. Whatever the cause, you have to adapt, and you probably already have the tools available to do so.

There are four main tools that already exist in your curriculum which you can use to break difficult subjects down into manageable chunks. These are:

Adapting to difficult subjects is probably going to require you to allot more time to those subjects, but make sure that you don't just end up talking more. This is not likely to give you the results you're looking for in your students.

Adapting for Easily-understood Subjects

Despite sounding simple, this kind of curriculum-adapting is not necessarily the opposite of adapting for difficult subject matter.

It may come as a relief that some things you teach will take less time than planned. Perhaps your students have studied the subject before, or some insightful activities earlier in the semester allowed them to be well-prepared to digest some new topic quickly.

The key here is to always be verifying understanding with your students. You can do this through active listening, in-class quizzes, or group discussion. If you can see that a huge majority of your class understands a topic acceptably well, and you're willing to work one-on-one with the few that don't, you can move the class along faster than anticipated.

NCF (2005)

Language Education: Language skills such as speech and listening, reading and writing – cut across school subjects and disciplines. Their foundational role in children’s construction of knowledge right from elementary classes through higher secondary classes needs to be recognised. A renewed effort should be made to implement the three language formula, emphasizing the recognition of children’s home language(s) or mother tongue (s) as the best medium of instruction. This includes tribal languages. English needs to find place along with other Indian languages. The multilingual character of Indian society should be seen as a resource for the enhancement of school life.

Mathematics: Teaching of Mathematics, it is proposed, should enhance the learner’s resources to think and reason, visualise and handle abstractions, to formulate and solve problems.

Science: Content, process and language of science teaching must be commensurate with the learner’s age-range and cognitive reach. Science teaching should engage the learners in acquiring methods and processes that will nurture their curiosity and creativity, particularly in relation to the environment. Concern for the environment should be emphasized in every subject and through a wide range of activities involving outdoor project work. For any qualitative change from the present situation, science education in India must undergo a paradigm shift. Rote learning should be discouraged. Inquiry skills should be supported and strengthened by language, design and quantitative skills. Schools should place much greater emphasis on supporting curricular activities aimed at stimulating, investigative ability, inventiveness and creativity, even if these are not part of the external examination. The development of science corners and providing access to science experimentation kits and laboratories in all the schools are important ways of equitable provisioning for science learning. A large-scale science fair at the national level (with feeder fairs at cluster/district/state levels) may be organised to encourage schools and teachers to participate in the movement of popularising and strengthening science at secondary level.

Social Sciences: Social Science learning in the NCF proposes to recognize the disciplinary markers while emphasising integration in Social Sciences from the perspective of marginalized groups. Gender justice and sensitivity towards tribal and dalit issues and minority sensitivities must inform all areas of Social Sciences.

Work, Arts, Heritage Crafts, Health and Peace: The NCF also draws attention to the four other curricular areas: work, arts and heritage crafts, health and physical education and peace. Certain radical steps to link learning from the primary stage upwards with work are suggested on the ground that work transforms knowledge into experience and generates important personal and social values such as self-reliance, creativity and co-operation. Art as a subject at all stages is recommended, covering all four major spheres, i.e. music, dance, visual arts and theatre with an emphasis on interactive approaches rather than instruction. The goal of art education is to promote aesthetic and personal awareness and the ability to express oneself in different forms. The importance of India’s heritage crafts both in terms of their economic and aesthetic values should be recognised as being relevant to school education. The success of the child at school depends on the nutrition and a well-planned physical activity programme. The NCF recommends that resources and school time must be deployed for the strengthening health and physical education dimension at secondary and senior secondary stage both for boys and girls.. Peace has been recognized as a pre condition for national development and as a social temper. It is proposed that the potential of peace education for socializing children into a democratic and just culture should be created through appropriate activities and judicious choices of topics in all subjects at all stages.