2.1 Need, Importance and Historical Perspective of IEP

Individualized Education Programme (IEP)

An I.E.P., or “Individualized Education Program,” is a written plan that describes the unique needs of a child who is eligible for special education and explains the specific services that the school will give the child.

An I.E.P. is an legal  document that describes exactly what special education services your child will receive and why. It will include your child’s eligibility, present  level of  performance, services, goal and objectives. The I.E.P. is decided at an I.E.P. meeting. The program must be designed to meet your Child’s unique needs.

The IEP is a written plan prepared for a named student. It is a record of what is being agreed as ‘additional to’ and ‘different from’ the usual differentiated curriculum provision that is provided by every class/subject teacher.

The collaborative nature of the process, through the involvement of teachers, parents, other professionals and the students him/herself facilitates the creation and development of a working document, enabling true inclusion of students.


§  I.E.P. is a management tool designed to ensure that in school Children with Special Needs receive the special education and related services appropriate to their needs. I.E.P. remain the corner stone of every educational programme planned for each student with  disability.

§  I.E.P. is a written statement for a student with exceptionality that is developed, reviewed and revised on a regular basis.

Historical Perspective

President Ford along with Congress passed legislation that was intended to improve opportunities in education for handicapped children and adults through the provision of a free appropriate public education. The law was called Public Law 94-142.

This law provided that handicapped children and adults ages 3-21 be educated in the "least restrictive environment" to the maximum extent appropriate, meaning that they are educated with children who are not handicapped and that special classes, separate schools or other removal of children from their regular educational environment occurs only when the severity of the handicap is such that education in regular classes cannot be achieved.

Before a child can be placed in a special education program, an extensive evaluation procedure is required by PL 94-142. These criteria must be determined before a child can be placed:

      whether a child has a physical or mental disability that substantially limits learning.

      the possible causes of a child's disability

      strengths and weaknesses of a child in physical, emotional, social, vocational and intellectual areas

      the educational diagnosis category that best describes a  child's disability

      the special services, instructional techniques and other interventions that the child needs

      the appropriate instructional placement for the child

      reasonable predictions of the child's academic, social and vocational potential

The school is required to receive written permission from the parent before conducting an evaluation of the child.

Once the child's evaluation is complete and it is determined that the child is indeed eligible for placement in special education, an Individual Education Plan (i.e.p.) must be written to meet the needs of that child.

 An interdisciplinary team is formed to write the child's I.E.P. Under PL 94-142, the team should, at a minimum, consist of a representative of the local school district, the child's teachers and the child's parents. PL 94-142 does stipulate certain criteria that are to be included in the I.E.P.

 I.E.P. should include a statement of:

·        the child's present level of educational performance;

·        the annual goals, including short term instructional objectives;

·        the specific special education and related services to be provided for the child and the extent to which the child will be able to participate in regular education program;

·        the projected dates for initiation of services and anticipated duration of services;

·        The appropriate objective criteria and assessment procedures and schedule for determining on at least an annual basis whether the short term instructional objectives are being met.

Purpose And Needs Of IEP                                                                                   

§  Get to know the child and discover their learning style, then the IEP will better reflect the child's needs. I would also suggest obtaining the form that may be filled out and used for Occasional Teachers.

§  The IEP allows for a broader explanation of the student's strengths, capabilities, weak areas, social balance, behavior needs and adjustments needed for the education and personal growth of the child.

§  The information on the IEP can direct the teachers, parents and other professionals to compile the information that will give the student a distinct advantage to reaching his/her educational requirements.

§  It also allows for a clearer understanding of the individuals personal needs.

§  The main purpose of IEP is to provide appropriate education and training to every child with  mental retardation. As  no two mentally retarded children  have similar abilities and needs, the development of IEP depends on the needs of the child

§  the IEP allows for a broader explanation of the student's strengths, capabilities, weak areas, social balance, behavior needs and adjustments needed for the education and personal growth of the child.

§  The information on the IEP can direct the teachers, parents and other professionals to compile the information that will give the student a distinct advantage to reaching his/her educational requirements.

2.2 Steps and Components of IEP

Ch. 2 - Individualized Spec. Ed. Programs

Components Of IEP

  General background information about the child.

  Assessment  of  current level of  functioning in specific skills.

  Goals and short term objective.

  Methods and material to achieve the objective.


1.     General Background Information About The Child

This data is collected  when the child is brought  to the school.

The information should be collected in the following areas:

·        Family background

·        Details about siblings

·        Socio-economic status

·        Pre-natal, natal post natal history

·        Developmental history

·        Other relevant factors.

2. Assessment of current level of functioning in specific skills

Assessment is the process of gathering and analyzing information in order to make instructional/administrative and/or guidance decision about or for an individual.                         - Wallac, Larson and Elkinson

Assessment is the most important component of I.E.P. because the whole programme depends on the assessment.

Norm Reference Test: N.R.T. is a standardized measure. Standardized test is a test in which the administration, scoring and interpretation procedures are set. Eg: Intelligence Test, Achievement Test.

Criterion Reference Test: C.R.T. compares student’s performance to a fixed criteria. In other words, C.R.T. is concerned with whether a child perform a skill as per the criteria set or not. Eg: Teacher made test.

The assessment of the current level of functioning  of the child must include:

·        Motor skills: Gross Motor, Fine Motor

·        Self Help Skills: Feeding (eating), Meal Time Activities, Toileting, Dressing, Grooming                                      

·        Language Skills:  Receptive language, Expressive language

·        Social Skills

·        Academics Skills: Reading, Writing, Number, Time, Money

·        Measurement

·        Domestic Skills (Skills performed in and around home)

·        Community Orientation Skills

·        Recreational Skills

·        Vocational Skills

3. Setting of goals

·        An Annual goal represent the achievement anticipated for a child in an academic year. It  is a prediction.

·        Goals represents the developmental areas or domains.

o   Eg: Rani will read English alphabet.  (Annual Goal)

Consideration to select Annual Goal

·        Child  Past  Achievement                

·        Present Level of Performance

·        The practicality  of the goals chosen

·        Ability of the child

·        Needs of the child

·        Functionally Relevant Goals

·        Priority Needs of the child

·        Amount of time required

·        Parental involvement

·        Teachers ability

Short Term Objectives

S.T.O. are the breaking down of annual goals in to similar units.S.T.O. are the specific curricular area derived from the goal which a teacher expects her student to learn over a period of short duration.

·        Writing behavioral objectives

·        Under what conditions will this behavior? (Condition)

·        Who is the person affected ? (Person)

·        What is the behavioral in question? (Behavior)

·        What level of performance is expected? (Criterion Level)

·        Deadline

4.     Teaching Methods,  Techniques And Material To Achieve The Objective

·        Play Way Method

·        Montessory Method

·        Project Method.


5.     Evaluation

In order to measure the student’s performance in terms of predetermined set of objectives evaluation is necessary. While evaluating the child for progress following must be kept in mind.

1.     There should not be bias on the part of the teacher .

2.     The evaluation must be quantitative and qualitative.

3.     There should be provision for written and verbal reports of the results.

4.     The evaluation must be continuous and should lead on to further planning of programs for the child.

2.3 Developing, Implementation and Evaluation of IEP for PwID and its associated conditions

Developing IEP

The IEP Team Members

By law, certain individuals must be involved in writing a child's Individualized Education Program. These are:

§  The child’s parents

§  At least one of the child’s special education teachers or providers

§  At least one of the child’s regular education teachers (if the student is, or may be, participating in the regular education environment);

§  A representative of the school system;

§  An individual who can interpret the evaluation results;

§  Representatives of any other agencies that may be responsible for paying for or providing transition services (if the student is 16 years or, if appropriate, younger);

§  The student, as appropriate, and

§  Other individuals who have knowledge or special expertise about the child.

Note that an IEP team member may fill more than one of the team positions if properly qualified and designated. For example, the school system representative may also be the person who can interpret the child's evaluation results.

These people must work together as a team to write the child's IEP. A meeting to write the IEP must be held within 30 calendar days of deciding that the child is eligible for special education and related services.

Each team member brings important information to the IEP meeting. Members share their information and work together to write the child's Individualized Education Program. Each person's information adds to the team's understanding of the child and what services the child needs.

Parents are key members of the IEP team. They know their child very well and can talk about their child's strengths and needs as well as their ideas for enhancing their child's education. They can offer insight into how their child learns, what his or her interests are, and other aspects of the child that only a parent can know. They can listen to what the other team members think their child needs to work on at school and share their suggestions. They can also report on whether the skills the child is learning at school are being used at home. (See the information at the end of this section about parents’ possible need for an interpreter.)

Teachers are vital participants in the IEP meeting as well. At least one of the child's regular education teachers must be on the IEP team if the child is (or may be) participating in the regular education environment. The regular education teacher has a great deal to share with the team. For example, he or she might talk about:

·        The general curriculum in the regular classroom;

·        The aids, services, or changes to the educational program that would help the child learn and achieve; and

·        Strategies to help the child with behavior, if behavior is an issue.

The regular education teacher may also discuss with the IEP team the supports for school staff that are needed so that the child can:

·        Advance toward his or her annual goals;

·        Be involved and progress in the general curriculum;

·        Participate in extracurricular and other activities; and

·        Be educated with other children, both with and without disabilities.

Supports for school staff may include professional development or more training. Professional development and training are important for teachers, administrators, bus drivers, cafeteria workers, and others who provide services for children with disabilities.


The child's special education teacher contributes important information and experience about how to educate children with disabilities. Because of his or her training in special education, this teacher can talk about such issues as:

·        how to modify the general curriculum to help the child learn;

·        the supplementary aids and services that the child may need to be successful in the regular classroom and elsewhere;

·        how to modify testing so that the student can show what he or she has learned; and

·        Other aspects of individualizing instruction to meet the student's unique needs.

Beyond helping to write the IEP, the special educator has responsibility for working with the student to carry out the IEP. He or she may:

·        work with the student in a resource room or special class devoted to students receiving special education services;

·        team teach with the regular education teacher; and

·        Work with other school staff, particularly the regular education teacher, to provide expertise about addressing the child's unique needs.

Another important member of the IEP team is the individual who can interpret what the child's evaluation results mean in terms of designing appropriate instruction. The evaluation results are very useful in determining how the child is currently doing in school and what areas of need the child has. This IEP team member must be able to talk about the instructional implications of the child's evaluation results, which will help the team plan appropriate instruction to address the child's needs.

The individual representing the school system is also a valuable team member. This person knows a great deal about special education services and educating children with disabilities. He or she can talk about the necessary school resources. It is important that this individual have the authority to commit resources and be able to ensure that whatever services are set out in the IEP will actually be provided.


The IEP team may also include additional individuals with knowledge or special expertise about the child. The parent or the school system can invite these individuals to participate on the team. Parents, for example, may invite an advocate who knows the child, a professional with special expertise about the child and his or her disability, or others (such as a vocational educator who has been working with the child) who can talk about the child's strengths and/or needs. The school system may invite one or more individuals who can offer special expertise or knowledge about the child, such as a paraprofessional or related services professional. Because an important part of developing an IEP is considering a child's need for related services (see the list of related services at the end of this section), related service professionals are often involved as IEP team members or participants. They share their special expertise about the child's needs and how their own professional services can address those needs. Depending on the child's individual needs, some related service professionals attending the IEP meeting or otherwise helping to develop the IEP might include occupational or physical therapists, adaptive physical education providers, psychologists, or speech‑language pathologists.

When an IEP is being developed for a student of transition age, representatives from transition service agencies can be important participants. (For more information about transition, see the information provided at the end of this section.) Whenever a purpose of meeting is to consider needed transition services, the school must invite a representative of any other agency that is likely to be responsible for providing or paying for transition services. This individual can help the team plan any transition services the student needs. He or she can also commit the resources of the agency to pay for or provide needed transition services. If he or she does not attend the meeting, then the school must take alternative steps to obtain the agency's participation in the planning of the student's transition services.

And, last but not least, the student may also be a member of the IEP team. If transition service needs or transition services are going to be discussed at the meeting, the student must be invited to attend. More and more students are participating in and even leading their own IEP meetings. This allows them to have a strong voice in their own education and can teach them a great deal about self‑advocacy and self‑determination.

Implementing the IEP

Once the IEP is written, it is time to carry it out‑-in other words, to provide the student with the special education and related services as listed in the IEP. This includes all supplementary aids and services and program modifications that the IEP team has identified as necessary for the student to advance appropriately toward his or her IEP goals, to be involved in and progress in the general curriculum, and participate in other school activities. While it is beyond the scope of this guide to discuss in detail the many issues involved in implementing a student's IEP, certain suggestions can be offered.

·        Every individual involved in providing services to the student should know and understand his or her responsibilities for carrying out the IEP. This will help ensure that the student receives the services that have been planned, including the specific modifications and accommodations the IEP team has identified as necessary.

·        Teamwork plays an important part in carrying out the IEP. Many professionals are likely to be involved in providing services and supports to the student. Sharing expertise and insights can help make everyone's job a lot easier and can certainly improve results for students with disabilities. Schools can encourage teamwork by giving teachers, support staff, and/or paraprofessional’s time to plan or work together on such matters as adapting the general curriculum to address the student's unique needs. Teachers, support staff, and others providing services for children with disabilities may request training and staff development.

·        Communication between home and school is also important. Parents can share information about what is happening at home and build upon what the child is learning at school. If the child is having difficulty at school, parents may be able to offer insight or help the school explore possible reasons as well as possible solutions.

·        It is helpful to have someone in charge of coordinating and monitoring the services the student receives. In addition to special education, the student may be receiving any number of related services. Many people may be involved in delivering those services. Having a person in charge of overseeing that services are being delivered as planned can help ensure that the IEP is being carried out appropriately.

·        The regular progress reports that the law requires will help parents and schools monitor the child's progress toward his or her annual goals. It is important to know if the child is not making the progress expected‑or if he or she has progressed much faster than expected. Together, parents and school personnel can then address the child's needs as those needs become evident.


Reviewing and Revising the IEP

The IEP team must review the child's IEP at least once a year. One purpose of this review is to see whether the child is achieving his or her annual goals. The team must revise the child's individualized education program, if necessary, to address:

·        The child's progress or lack of expected progress toward the annual goals and in the general curriculum;

·        Information gathered through any reevaluation of the child;

·        Information about the child that the parents share;

·        Information about the child that the school shares (for example, insights from the teacher based on his or her observation of the child or the child's class work);

·        The child's anticipated needs; or

·        Other matters.

Although the IDEA requires this IEP review at least once a year, in fact the team may review and revise the IEP more often. Either the parents or the school can ask to hold an IEP meeting to revise the child's IEP. For example, the child may not be making progress toward his or her IEP goals, and his or her teacher or parents may become concerned. On the other hand, the child may have met most or all of the goals in the IEP, and new ones need to be written. In either case, the IEP team would meet to revise the IEP.

2.4 IFSP – Planning and writing

The Individualized Family Support Plan is a written treatment plan or document that identifies the child's and family's strengths and needs, sets goals (for both the child and family members) or maps out early intervention services for the child and determines the steps that will be taken to achieve these goals.

It is a family based approach to services due to the central concept and understanding that supporting a child’s family lends itself to supporting the child or that the family is the child’s greatest resource and should be included in all stages of the plan.

A multidisciplinary team, which includes the parents, develops an Individualized Family Support Plan following the determination of eligibility, for each child and family.

The IFSP differs from the IEP in several ways

      It revolves around the family, as it is the family that is the constant in a child's life.

      It includes outcomes targeted for the family, as opposed to focusing only on the eligible child.

      It names a service coordinator to help the family during the development, implementation, and evaluation of the IFSP.

      It includes activities undertaken with multiple agencies beyond the scope of Part C. These are included to integrate all services into one plan.

      It includes the notion of natural environments, which encompass home or community settings such as parks, child care, and gym classes.

      This focus creates opportunities for learning interventions in everyday routines and activities, rather than only in formal, contrived environments.


1.     Child's  current  level of functioning and need :

      It includes strengths, interests and areas of concern.

      Areas include physical, cognitive, communication, social development and adaptive environment.

2.     Family information

      This includes details about family’s priorities, concerns and resources as they relate to enhancing the development of the child.

3.     Statement of the major outcomes:

      This includes writing the statement of the major outcomes (or goals) expected to be achieved for the child and family.

      These should be short term goals and not the achievement goals for the child’s entire life.

      The outcomes or goals must be relevant, specific and measurable.

      It should include the criteria, procedures and timelines used to determine the degree to which progress toward achieving the outcomes is being made.

4.     Support and Services:

      The support and services that the child will receive should be listed in detail to achieve the stated outcomes provided within the child and family's daily routines and activities.

      Supports and services can be in the form of educational, medical, paraprofessional and social services.

5.     Place and Time:

§  Where in the natural environment (school, home or community) the services will be provided should be mentioned.

§  When the services will begin, how often they will occur and how long they will last should also be mentioned

§  Who will pay for these services should also be mentioned (A variety of funding resources may be used to pay for these services including state and federal government resources, private insurance, family resources and/or local agencies.

6.     Service Coordinator:

a.      The name of the Service Coordinator must be there. This person is the family's primary contact for assistance throughout the IFSP process, and is responsible for the implementation of the plan and coordination with other agencies and people.

b.     He should also connect the family with other families and ensure that they understand their rights and procedural safeguards.


1.     Identify Family Concerns, Priorities, and Resources:

The family's concerns, priorities, and resources guide the entire IFSP process. Early intervention should be seen as a system of services and supports available to families to enhance their capacity to care for their children. The notion of partnership between the intervention team and the family must be introduced and nurtured at this beginning point of the IFSP process.

2.     Identify the Family's Activity Settings:

All children develop as the result of their everyday experiences. It is important to document valued, enjoyable routines (bath time, eating, plays activities, etc.) and analyze them to see if they offer the sustained engagement that leads to learning opportunities. Likewise, it is important to identify the community activity settings (e.g., child care, swimming) that provide opportunities for learning.

3.     Collaboratively Develop Expected Outcomes:

The team now meets to review the information and the family's concerns, priorities, and resources to develop statements of expected outcomes or goals. Active family involvement is essential. Collaborative goals focus on enhancing the family's capacity and increasing the child's participation in valued activities.

4.     Assign Intervention Responsibilities:

After outcomes are identified, the early intervention team assigns responsibilities for intervention services that support those outcomes.

Using a trans- disciplinary team model is one method of integrating information and skills across professional disciplines. In the trans-disciplinary model, all team members (including the family) teach, learn, and work together to accomplish a mutually agreed upon set of intervention outcomes

In a trans-disciplinary model, one or a few people are primary implementers of the program. Other team members provide ongoing direct or indirect services, such as consultation. For example, an occupational therapist can observe a toddler during meals, then recommend to the parent how to physically assist the child

5.     Identify Strategies to Implement the Plan:

This step involves working closely as a team to increase learning opportunities, to use the child's surroundings to facilitate learning, to select the most effective strategies to bring about the desired outcomes, and identify reinforcers that best support the child's learning.

Implementation may involve a toddler participating in a library story hour one afternoon a week; a physical therapist showing family members how to use adaptive equipment; or a service coordinator completing the paperwork to pay for a child's transportation from his or her home to needed services.

6.     Intervention:

Intervention strategies should help promote generalization of outcomes—i.e., the child performs new skills in a variety of environments after intervention has ended.

Interventions should target several outcomes during one activity. When a child participates in an activity, he or she uses a variety of skills from a number of developmental areas. For example, during mealtimes, a toddler may use communication skills to request more juice, fine motor skills to grasp a spoon, a social skills to interact with a sibling.

It should help a child become more independent in his or her world. The selected strategies might involve offering physical assistance during mealtimes, prompting the correct response during a self-care routine, or providing simple pull-on clothing to enable a child to dress without assistance.

7.     Evaluation:

Both ongoing and periodic evaluations are essential to any early intervention program. An evaluation may focus on a child's progress toward obtaining desired outcomes and upon the quality of the intervention program itself. Ongoing monitoring of the child's progress requires keeping records in a systematic manner in order to answer such critical questions as -

      To what extent and at what rate is the child making progress toward attaining outcomes?

      Are the selected intervention strategies and activities promoting gains in development?

      Do changes need to be made in the intervention plan?

8.                 Review:

Periodically reviewing the IFSP provides a means of sharing results about the child's progress and integrating these results into the plan. Part C of IDEA requires that the IFSP be evaluated and revised annually and that periodic reviews be conducted at least every six months (or sooner if requested by the family).

This ongoing process provides a continual support to the family and child as they realize their own strengths and resources to help their child learn.

2.5 Application of IEP for Inclusion

Each student’s IEP will be different, reflecting their personal learning needs. Some students require only small adaptations and minimum levels of support. These students with special needs can achieve the expected learning outcomes for their grade level and/or courses. Some students with more complex needs will require modifications to their education programs. Some or all of the learning outcomes for these students may differ from the curriculum. Some students may have both adaptations and modifications in their IEPs. IEPs may be brief or detailed as appropriate, and are designed to enable learners to reach their individual potential.

From school entry to school leaving, developing and implementing an appropriate IEP is critical for supporting student learning and long-term success. It’s also the foundation for reporting. Participating in the development of your child’s IEP is critical. Your role in planning, making the plan work, and ensuring that quality educational opportunities are available to your child will lead to the future you want for your family and for your child.

When the IEP is implemented in inclusive setup it allows us to make the adaptation and modification that are required for the child with special needs

Adaptations may include:

      changes to the physical environment, different teaching strategies, different materials, or different evaluation methods.

      small classrooms; altering the classroom lighting or ambient sound; providing wheelchair accessible space; or specific seating arrangements to accommodate a student’s needs.

      the use of concrete manipulative materials; providing both written and spoken directions; allowing extra time or supervised breaks; use of a visual schedule; or breaking information into smaller chunks or steps.

      providing calculators; providing recorded material; providing Braille or large text; highlighting directions or key points; offering raised line paper; or providing technology to use, such as computers.

      use of video; extended time for tests; use of oral tests; providing a scribe; open book tests; small group or individual testing; allow audiotaped responses; or use of readers on first draft writing and numeracy.


Modifications involve setting goals that differ from those in the provincial curriculum. Students with more complex needs may require detailed planning for educational modifications, including the use of adaptive technologies. Their needs may also require the development of health care plans. Modifications should focus on the skills that a student needs to enhance his or her quality of life, now and in the future.

Quality inclusive education doesn’t just happen. Educating children with

disabilities in general education settings with access to the general education

environment requires careful planning and preparation. Research shows that principals, special education directors, superintendents, teachers, parents and community members must all be involved and invested in the successful outcome of inclusive education.

Teachers — both general and special education — must collaborate to create learning strategies and environments that work for all students. Related service personnel, including speech therapists, occupational therapists, physical therapists and school psychologists will be expected to deliver their services in the general education environment rather than in pull-out rooms and will need to incorporate their services into the general education curriculum and schedule.

Plan An Inclusive IEP

Parents are members of the IEP team and, in this role, are an integral part of developing goals and sharing strategies that will support their child’s goals. Careful planning for the IEP meeting is essential when designing the services needed to support your child successfully. Take your time when planning for the IEP. Outline goals you seek to achieve, then take the steps necessary to achieve those goals.



Share and gather resources.

As required by the IDEA, the school team must include the family’s suggestions regarding the goals and the associated supports to achieve at the IEP meeting. As Nate’s family continued to plan for the IEP meeting, they let Nate’s teacher know

that they would submit their suggested goals to include in the IEP. They also brought a list of strategies that were most successful for Nate in previous years. In addition, they requested the teacher provide them a draft of the IEP one week prior to the meeting.

Bring an ally.

Parents often describe IEP meetings, including the discussion of placement, as

very difficult and painful. Families have found it useful to have a friend or advocate sit next to them, take notes, share ideas, and help them process information.

Be sure to choose someone who is comfortable being there, can communicate effectively, and who serves as a calm supportive presence for you during the meeting.

Stay focused on placement. When you are discussing your child’s placement, you should keep the discussion focused on how the school can help your child be successfully included. Some handy phrases to have on the tip of your tongue

might include:

      “Our number one priority is that she remains with her same age peers,”

      “Let’s strategize about how that can happen in the general education classroom,”

      “That service seems portable… let’s plan for how it can be brought to my child.”

      “My child needs to be surrounded by other children who can model those skills.”

Help Write Inclusion Oriented Goals

A student’s individual goals should be driven by the student’s strengths and what the student and his family would like to accomplish over the course of the year. Goals should be individual and directed by the student’s needs and should also assist in connecting the student to the general education curriculum and to their peers

Strategies For Writing An Inclusive IEP

Get good at writing IEP goals

When drafting your child’s IEP goals, be sure to consider how the goals can guide the team in working on academic and social skills in natural inclusive environments.

Make sure the goals:

• Use supports and curriculum that are age-appropriate

• Lead to meaningful outcomes for your child

• Support learning the general education curriculum with peers

• Occur in natural settings and times throughout the day. For example, zipping practice can be done by taking a coat on and off before and after recess and social skills can be practiced in cooperative groups while learning science

Sample Goals:

      While participating in 12th grade biology, Sophie will be able to name and describe four big ideas from each unit of study, with 80% accuracy for each unit.

      While working in cooperative groups with 2-4 peers without disabilities, Noah will successfully take turns 4 out of 5 times.


It is a legally-supported, evidence-based practice that continues to show positive outcomes for students with and without disabilities in schools. Where a child is educated is one of the most important educational decisions a team can make. Parents are an essential component of that team. We are hopeful that parents can utilize these ideas to articulate a clear vision, and work in collaboration with their school team to advocate for their child to successfully achieve meaningful inclusion.