4.1 Enhancing Technology Friendly Practices among Teachers.
A broad concept that deals with usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects ability to control and adapt to environment.
The human race's use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools.
Today it has penetrated in every aspect of a human’s life. On one hand where it has revolutionized and added values to the life of normal human beings, it has been proved to be a boon for differently able.
Technology-Based Instruction : Technology-based instruction or E-learning is simply using technology to deliver training and educational materials.
Quality of Technology based instructions
1. Suitability to Users and their Environment - The devices should be compatible with the users’ aspirations, emotional needs, and ways of life, and with their culture and local customs; unobtrusive by local standards, and physically comfortable from users’ perspectives. It should assure user safety, be useful in a variety of situations, and be durable, dependable and reliable especially in rural areas, remote areas and rugged conditions, and compatible with the ground surface and other conditions of a user’s physical environment.
2. Inexpensive and Easy to Purchase - The devices should be low in purchase price. Government and/or NGOs can also support in the provision and purchase of the devices, free of charge or at subsidized rates. The devices should be easy and aﬀordable to assemble or produce and maintain, so that keeping the devices in working order would require minimal resources and can be repaired with the use of locally available materials and technical skills.
3. Easy-to-Use - The devices should be easily understandable by users with limited exposure to technology, portable (easy to move from one place to another), and easy to operate without prolonged training or complex skills. Depending upon the deferential abilities of the learners, and the context and feasibility of the approach, assistive provisions in education can help assist students with disabilities in learning, and a collaborative eﬀort in the use of assistive devices, assistive technology, resource room support and innovative educational strategies to promote and sustain inclusion can support these students to learn at par with their non disabled peers in inclusive educational settings).
Disability is seen to have more serious consequences for those students, who struggle with a ’dually disadvantaged’ life amidst additional handicapping conditions besides ’disability’, like poverty, thereby having limited access to rehabilitation services and assistive devices. Trapped in a vicious cycle of exclusion from education, society and mainstream development programmes, without appropriate information, assistive devices and support services, such students lack the means for equal participation in education and development. The resulting lack of skills is a barrier to meaningful employment opportunities later in life, further perpetuating the cumulative disadvantages. Assistive technology can help in meeting these ’disabling’ needs by addressing the ’functional barriers’ confronted by individuals with disabilities, including the sensory, cognitive, learning and physical disabilities.
4.2 Computer-Assisted & Computer Managed Instructions, Cybernetics, E- learning, Use of Net Search and Websites
COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTIONS
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) refers to that process where in a computer with software used for learning specified tasks
Types of Computer Assisted Instruction
Drill-and-practice Drill and practice provide opportunities or students to repeatedly practice the skills that have previously been presented and that further practice is necessary for mastery.
This mode is designed to teach basic facts. The student is asked to type in answers to questions and the computer tells him about the correctness of his response. The pupil is presented with more questions until the material is committed to memory. Control of learning rests with the computer since it initiates and controls the students’ activity. Although dill and practice programmes might help students memorize facts and information they can go beyond this and ask questions which involve the use of procedural knowledge to supply answers and provide reinforcement and feedback.
Tutorial Tutorial activity includes both the presentation of information and its extension into different forms of work, including drill and practice, games and simulation.
Tutorial is used to teach basic concepts or methods. The tutorial type utilizes written explanations, descriptions, questions, problems and graphic illustrations for teaching concepts much like a tutor. Tutorial mode is very useful when students show varying levels of conceptual understanding and it can provide for individual tutoring needs that may be difficult to satisfy through traditional instructional arrangements. The computer specifies the tasks and on submission of answers by the students, the computer checks and provides feedback. Control of the learning situation rests with the computer.
Games Game software often creates a contest to achieve the highest score and either beat others or beat the computer.
Simulation Simulation software can provide an approximation of reality that does not require the expense of real life or its risks.
Simulation deals with the representation of an event, system or equipment. This is an excellent mode which enables students to investigate and experiment with system and processes which are complex, dangerous and expensive. It has the unique ability to compress time and produce expensive, delicate or dangerous systems and equipment. Simulation allows students to investigate the optimum conditions for carrying out a particular process and gain an appreciation of the situation and constrains.
Discovery Discovery approach provides a large database of information specific to a course or content area and challenges the learner to analyze, compare, infer and evaluate based on their explorations of the data.
Problem Solving This approach helps children develop specific problem solving skills and strategies.
Cybernetics: The term has been derived from a Greek Word kybernetes meaning steersman a person who provides the control system for a boat or ship. Steersman is able to regulate the working of his vehicle according to the communication (feedback).
This word was coined in 1948 and defined as a science by Norbert Wiener, who was born in 1894 and died in 1964. He became known as the Father of Cybernetics.
The science of communication and control that can help in building as a self-regulatory automatic feedback system similar to that found in animal, men and machines.
· It stands for self- regulatory automatics system
· It is a science of communication and control
· It can modify its operation in the light of the feedback received by it through its output.
Cybernetics in education
1. Teacher is the steersman of the teaching-learning process
2. He has to take along with him the pupils for reaching a set goal by steering out a learning path.
3. The instructional system he/she chooses must be appropriately controlled.
4. While working with system, if he gets feedback that the system is working properly in terms of output, it will be steered with no change.
5. But if he gets communication that there is something wrong with the system, he will try to set it right.
6. He may have to bring changes in his own method of teaching, the size or quality of the content, or learning experiences, interaction with the students, etc. and again the system is put to work after being corrected.
7. This is how a system is controlled by receiving proper communication and feedback about its functioning in right or wrong way.
8. Our human body system are good examples of such regulatory system
Cybernetics means ‘to steer’, ‘to navigate’ or ‘to govern’ for taking the system to desired goal. Here in classroom teaching-learning process is a system and the goal is success of the learner and learning process. Classroom cybernetics is constituted by Constructivism, Conversation theory and a feedback system. Constructivism resulted in five E’s namely- Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate and Evaluate.
E-Learning is learning anything with the help of electronic media, usually through the internet. Having garnered a lot of popularity in the recent times, e-learning is slowly becoming a vital element of education today. Be it on online learning platforms or in the form of e-books, you can easily see its presence in some way or the other.
Through the method of e-learning, learning becomes a lot easier. Nowadays, the best online learning platforms enable eLearning so that students can get the maximum out of their lessons. It could be in the form of content videos, interactive e-books, unlimited practice questions, etc.
If you are still wondering as to what is the importance of e-learning in today’s education, read on to know why:
1. Provides high retention power
Those who learn use e-learning platforms retain their lessons more than those who don’t. Through the method of e-learning, learners have no pressure on them and this helps them remember what they studied. Technology is something that a lot of learners love to use when they study as it provides them with the choice to study as per their comfort. No one forces them to study and this in turn results in much more productivity when they learn.
As e-learning tools take the help of visuals to impart learning, learners remember their lessons more as compared to a traditional classroom environment. The visuals help in visualizing different concepts in a much more interesting way. For instance, if the teachers teach you the concept of ‘Force’, then you would rather learn the concept more with the help of visuals as compared to the teaching method that involves a chalk and blackboard.
2. Availability of a vast information pool
E-learning enables the learners to access a vast information pool anytime and anywhere. Since updated information is available for different topics, learners seldom face doubts. In addition to that, learners get deep insights on the subjects at hand that they would have not gained otherwise by studying in traditional classrooms.
3. Provides a digital learning environment
Important mediums such as computer-based learning, virtual classrooms, web-based learning, and mobile-based learning form part of e-content for school education. It enables both the teacher and student to teach and learn in a digital learning environment. Such tools help in making an information-rich society because people get to learn, share and make use of the information they read. You can say that e-content is a type of virtual teacher that lets the learners learn in the best possible way.
4. Other benefits
The other benefits of e-learning are: –
· Irrespective of the geographical location of the learners, e-learning offers access to the best content to them.
· Enables learners to become self-learners.
· Given the speed with which a learner learns with e-learning tools, the learner gets more time to pursue their hobbies or talents.
· Cuts down the pressure and stress of exam, helping the students to mentally prepare for their exams.
· Encourages students to initiate learning.
· Simplifies the entire learning process and makes it more effective and engaging.
The best online learning platforms bring different concepts to life which makes lessons more relatable and concepts easier to understand. Hence, it is safe to say that e-learning has a lot of importance in today’s education.
Role of Internet in Education
Internet, the most useful technology of modern times which helps us not only in our daily lives but also in professional lives. For educational purposes, it is widely used to gather information and to do research or add to the knowledge of various subjects.
Internet plays a very vital role in education. It is no doubt that in this modern era everyone prefers Google for their queries, problems or doubts. Popular search engines like Google, Yahoo, etc. are the topmost choice of people as they offer an easy and instant reach to the vast amount of information in just a few seconds. It contains a wealth of knowledge that can be searched at any time. The internet has introduced improvements in technology, communication, and online entertainment.
Today, it has become more important as well as a powerful
tool in the world which is preferred by everyone. Everybody needs internet for
some or other purposes. Students need internet to search for information
related to exams, curriculum, results, etc. You can also follow these
steps for students to achieve success in student life.
Importance of internet in education to the students’ means that it makes easier for them to research things, and relearn the content taught in the school. People use it according to their needs and interests.
There are many benefits of the internet in the field of education. Some of these are:
1. Cost Effective and Affordable Education
One of the largest barriers to education is high cost. The Internet improves the quality of education, which is one of the pillars of sustainable development of a nation. It provides education through Videos (like youtube tutorial videos) and web tutorials which is affordable to everyone and cost-effective.
2. Student – Teacher and Peer Interaction
The internet has allowed students to be in constant touch
with their teachers or with other fellow classmates with the help of social
media, messaging apps and chat forums. Parents can interact as well as
communicate with teachers and school authorities about their kid’s performance
in the school. Interaction with the like minded people on forums can help
students to explore new ideas and enrich their knowledge.
3. Effective Teaching and Learning Tool
The Internet has
become a major tool for effective teaching as well as a learning tool. Teachers
can use it as a teaching tool by posting their teaching materials (notes and
videos) on school website or forum . The learning process becomes interesting
and diverse with the use of tutorial videos and notes. Teachers can teach with
the use of animation, powerpoint slides, and images to capture the students’
4. Easy Access to Quality Education
Students can easily access quality education materials like tutorial videos on youtube for free or pay fees online for more quality study materials. Teachers can also make use of the internet by proving the students with extra study material and resources such as interactive lessons, educational quiz as well as tutorials. Teachers can record their lectures and provide it to the students for revisions which is better than reading from notes.
5. Interaction with Digital Media
Regular use of digital media is one of the most basic parts
of our lives. Digital bulletin boards save paper, allow displaying of videos
and audios to attract the attention of students. Nowadays, there are many paid
sites which provide education resources which are rich in quality and easily
understandable to masses.
6. Keeping you updated with Latest Information
Information is the biggest advantage which the internet is
offering. There is a huge amount of information available for every subject. It
keeps us up to date with the latest information regarding the subjects in which
we are interested.
7. Learning with Multimedia
It helps the students with the learning process as it helps to simplify the knowledge. Also, it helps to visualize what is being taught by the teachers in school. If you want to prepare for final exams, you can access Video Tutorials and other resources online through the Internet.
The Internet is a boon to the people, which is used all over the world. Hence, it should be used for good purpose. It has had a great impact on imparting education to the children. If this is used in appropriate ways that meet children’s development level, they can benefit and learn from the Internet.
4.3 Disability Friendly Technology – Punarjani, and e-learning Framework developed by C-DAC
Punarjani-Assessment Tool for the Intellectual Disabled: C-DAC Trivandrum is engaged in developing an assessment tool named Punarjani. The system will collect a lot of data about a particular child with Intellectual Disabled like developmental history, school history, home environment, social environment etc. and will be capable of suggesting a long term goal for the disabled. It also helps the teacher concerned to select a suitable strategy.
C-DAC has developed a number of indigenous solutions for content management, evaluation and assessment, virtual classroom, collaboration for elearning domain. Some of the solutions are listed below.
e-learning Framework developed by C-DAC
e-learning is an innovative technology that removes the barriers of distance and time, and provides greater flexibility allowing the learner to learn at his/her own pace. e-Sikshak, is an e-Learning environment developed by C-DAC, Hyderabad to support this new learning paradigm.
1. Support for 3-level course organization with a hierarchy of Course, Module and lesson
2. Create and modify courses
3. Course Reports
1. Question bank creation
2. Multiple-choice single answers
3. Multiple-choice multiple answers
4. True or False questions
5. Uploading of assignments by instructor
6. Uploading solutions by student
7. Student performance reports
1. Synchronous communication between student and instructor
2. Graphical interface to simulate real world Whiteboard
3. Facilitates drawings with color; all drawing tools like rectangle, circle, free-hand etc.
4. Text with desired color font etc
5. Shared discussion area between student and instructor
1. Creates forums for subject discussions
2. Thread based discussions
1. Real-time communication between instructor and learner
2. Public chat between student and instructor
3. Blocking/unblocking chat users by the instructor
1. Asynchronous communication tool
2. Facilitates offline interaction with instructor or among the student community
3. Attachment facility
1. Portal efficiently handles user management in successful implementation of the course. The different users involved are :
§ Manage users
§ Create and update courses
§ Assigns learners to the courses
§ Upload course material
§ Maintain question bank
§ Evaluate assignments
§ Activate discussion forums
§ Register into multiple courses
§ Access course material and download
§ Get the performance report
§ Take online test
1. Unicode based multilingual solution
2. Customizable Graphical User Interface
3. Supports multi media content
4. Portable to mySQL and Oracle
5. Servlet based serve side technology
4.4 Developing Technology Integrated Lessons – Individual and Group
When designing computer-based activities, give consideration to how technology can be used to acquire, organize, demonstrate, and communicate information. The planning process for technology integration is similar to planning a curriculum unit. The main differences are HOW the students acquire the knowledge and skills, HOW they demonstrate and apply the knowledge and skills, and HOW learning will be assessed or evaluated. These differences have a major influence on the structure of a lesson plan as they incorporate the use of the computer.
In addition to the skills and knowledge that must be taught as part of the curriculum, consideration must also be given to the technology skills students need to learn. Often teachers assume that the students will figure it out on their own. However, this can waste instructional time. It is a good idea to plan ahead, so that the time in the computer lab is well spent.
CATEGORY/ AREA OF FUNCTION
ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS
NEED AND RELEVANCE IN CLASSROOM LEARNING
Electronic books, Book adapted for page turning, Single word scanners, Predictable texts, Tabs, Talking electronic devices/software, Speech Software
For students having diﬃculty in reading and understanding written text and in paying attention to the reading assigned.
Pen/Pencil grips, Templates, Word processors, Word card/book/wall, software, Spelling/Grammar checker, Adapted papers
For students having problem in writing or composition
Calculators, Talking Clocks, Enlarged Worksheets, Voice Output Measuring Devices, Scientiﬁc Calculators
For students having computational problems and confusions, and ﬁnding it diﬃcult to perform well in Math lessons
Eye glasses, Magniﬁer, Screen Magniﬁcation, Screen Reader, Braille Large Print Books, CCTV, Audio Lesson Tapes
For students who have diﬃculty in seeing or lack complete vision
Hearing Aids, Pen and paper, Signaling Devices, Closed Captioning
For students who have diﬃculty in hearing or are absolute hearing impaired
Word prediction, Alternative Keyboards, Pointing Option, Switches, Voice recognition software
For students ﬁnding it diﬃcult to access the computer in its standard form and have diﬃculty in performing academic tasks
Communication Board, Device with speech synthesis for typing, Eye gaze board/ frame, Voice output device
For students having problems in comprehension of language, and lacking the ability to express it, or are unclear in speech and demonstrate delayed expressive language
Learning disability and ADHD
Use of applications/devices depending upon the degree of disability/diﬃculty, in the area of reading and writing (Dyslexia), handeye coordination, written expression and composition (Dysgraphia), diﬃculty in ﬁne motor skills, Coordination (Dyspraxia), Math (Dyscalculia) and Attention (ADHD) like Talking electronic devices, Calculators, Electric Organizers, Highlighters, Pencil Grips, Post-its, Computers, Spelling/Grammar Checker, Electronic Organizers, Recorded materials, Hand held Scanners, Print or picture schedule, Electronic Diaries etc.
For students having problem in language development, reading and writing (Dyslexia), hand-eye coordination, written expression and composition (Dysgraphia), diﬃculty in ﬁne motor skills, Coordination (Dyspraxia), Math (Dyscalculia), and ADHD
4.5 Implications of Technology based instruction in Inclusion
Assistive Technology for Students with Mobility Impairments
Students having diﬃculty with ﬁne motor skills may require larger keyboard while using a computer, an on-screen keyboard or speech recognition programs to coordinate with their learning tasks. The use of a standard keyboard in a computer with access to a ’mouth- or head-stick’, where the keys can be pressed with the pointing device can help students with mobility impairments; while Track balls, head trackers and touch screens can serve as suitable alternatives to the computer mouse. Software utilities can create ’sticky keys’ that electronically latch the SHIFT, CONTROL, and other keys to allow sequential keystrokes to input commands that normally require two or more keys to be pressed simultaneously. Students with mobility impairments, using a wheel chair, may have their computer desks adjusted to a comfortable height, to pull up to the computer to work. Keyboard guards can be used by individuals with limited ﬁne motor control, and repositioning the keyboard and monitor may help in enhancing accessibility; like mounting keyboards perpendicular to tables or wheelchair trays at head-height to assist individuals with limited mobility using pointing devices to press keys, and use of disk guides for inserting and removing diskettes. Left-handed and right-handed keyboards available for individuals who need to operate the computer with one hand, have the provision of more eﬃcient key arrangements, than standard keyboards designed for two-handed users. For users with severe mobility impairments, keyboard emulation, including scanning and Morse code input, can be used with special switches that make use of at least one muscle over which the individual has voluntary control like - head, ﬁnger, knee, or mouth. In scanning input, lights or cursors scan letters, and symbols are displayed on computer screens or external devices, where hundreds of switches tailor input devices to individual needs. Speech recognition systems allow users to control computers by speaking words and letters, where a particular system is ’trained’ to recognize speciﬁc voices. Abbreviation expansion and word prediction software can also help in reducing input demands for commonly used text and keyboard commands; and on-screen help may assist in eﬃcient access to user guides for individuals who are unable to turn pages in books. Architectural or physical environmental barriers like the absence of ramps, elevators, automatic doors, Braille signage, and telecommunication devices, are also seen to deter and restrict the participation of students with disabilities. Therefore, infrastructural changes and adjustments in the schools and educational institutions (Campbell, 1989), like the availability of ramps; accessibility to classroom, workspace and labs through lifts; washrooms having counters and sinks with adjustable heights etc can be ensured through applicability of universal design for ease in accessibility, and can help address the hidden barriers preventing the equal access and participation of students with mobility impairments in education and social life.
· Battery Powered Joystick Operated Wheelchair
· Aluminum Crutches
· Ankle Brace for ankle support
· Prosthetic limbs
· Cervical Immobilizer
· Child model tricycle
· Folding sticks and folding walkers
Assistive Technology for Students with Visual Impairment/Blindness
Visually impaired students have diﬃculty accessing visual material in printed form or on the computer screen, where standard keyboards can aid in accessing Braille input devices, with Braille key labels assisting with the keyboard use. The OBR (Optical Braille Recognition) software can enable users having visual impairment to read Braille documents on a standard A4 scanner, scan the Braille document, analyze the dot pattern, translate the text, and present it on the computer screen. Refreshable Braille displays allow line-by-line translation of screen text into Braille, which can help in detailed editing. The Braille printers provide the ’hard copy’ output for the visually impaired users. Scanners with optical character recognition can read printed material; which can then be stored electronically on computers, and be read using speech synthesis, or printed using Braille translation software and Braille printers. Such systems provide independent access to journals, syllabi, and homework assignments for the visually impaired students. Speech output systems can be used to read screen text, while the screen readers or the text-to-speech software like JAWS (Job Access with Speech) can help the user in adjusting the volume, pitch and speed of reading, and in choosing or adjusting to a male or female voice according to their preference. Screen readers including navigation tools allow users to skip from headline to headline, or category to category while reading. Using the synthetic speech, the computer can read text passages, analyze the phonetic structure of words and attempt re-constructing words by putting together a string of synthetic phonemes, ensuring easy understandability of the message by the student. The use of earphones for individuals using speech output systems can reduce and limit the distractions for other individuals present. Audio materials like talking books and audio cassettes of recorded lessons can be used by students with visual impairment. The use of sophisticated audio devices, CD players, cassette players, and recording machines can be used to record lectures, books and other study materials and help students in submitting their assignments in audio formats. The descriptive video service with a narrative verbal description of the visual elements displayed on the screen enables the students to automatically hear the descriptions of all the visual elements, providing the students with visual impairment an opportunity for better socialization and knowledge building (Petty, 2012).
· Braille shorthand machine
· Distance vision telescopes
· Hand held magnifiers
· KNFB portable reader for blind people
· Talking dictionary
· Smart Cane
Students with ADHD
Students who have problems attending to lecture or reading lengthy texts benefit when verbal and textual input can be supplemented with visual reinforcement by video or images. Video-streaming subscription sites like Discovery Education Streaming offer authentic content produced with the learner in mind. These online video databases are easily searchable and offer a range of topics and levels.
English language learners
Students for whom English is not a first language can become frustrated when presented with information that meets their English comprehension level but is far below their cognitive level. These students also benefit from supplementing verbal and written information with videos. Discovery Education videos include closed-captioning, which reinforces the language by providing spoken and written speech at the same time, while supporting vocabulary acquisition with images.
Students with reading or processing difficulties
Students who have difficulty reading or processing text similarly benefit from visual reinforcement for a reading passage. Supplementing a reading passage with images provides valuable context that can scaffold the learner’s understanding. Before sharing a reading selection with students, the teacher can identify the elements of the passage that lend themselves to visual enhancement and create a list of images to enhance comprehension. Image databases like Flicker and the Wikimedia Commons provide easy, searchable access to countless images, which can be displayed in slideshow format as a pre-reading strategy for the entire class. Alternately, images can be inserted into a multimedia presentation to be viewed individually alongside a text while the student reads. If the text is available electronically, it may be possible to insert both the text and the associated image in the presentation.
Assistive Technology for Students with Speciﬁc Learning Disabilities
For students having Speciﬁc Learning Disabilities, educational software can help in skill building, by oﬀering multisensory experiences, positive reinforcement, individualized instruction, and repetition. Students having diﬃculty processing written information can complete writing assignments and tutorial lessons with the aid of computers, like the standard word processor may prove a valuable tool for students with Dysgraphia, an inability to write legibly. Quiet work areas and ear protectors may make computer input easier for students who are hypersensitive to background noise and get easily distracted. Adaptive devices like large print displays, alternative colors on the computer screen, and voice output can help in compensating reading problems. ’Electronic Math Sheets’ help in the organization, alignment and working of the Math problems on a computer screen, where the numbers appearing can be read aloud through the speech synthesizer, helping students facing diﬃculty in aligning Math problems using pencil and a paper. Software like ’Abbreviation expanders’ can prove helpful with word processing to create, store, and re-use abbreviations for frequently used words or phrases, to ensure proper spellings for students who have diﬃculty in writing. The Paper-based Pen technology (Liao et al., n.d.), can record and link audio to what the student writes using the pen and the special paper, enabling note-taking while recording the teacher’s lecture simultaneously, which the student can also listen to later by touching the pen to the corresponding handwriting or diagrams. This technology proves useful for students struggling with listening, writing, memory and reading skills. Students having diﬃculty interpreting visual material can improve comprehension and the ability to identify and correct errors when words are spoken or printed in large fonts. Computer documentation in electronic forms may be used with enlarged character and voice synthesis devices to ensure better accessibility to those with reading diﬃculties. Assistive technology has a major role in remediating and compensating the performance deﬁcits experienced by students, enhancing the students’ performance; and ensuring eﬀective evaluation as an accommodation during testing, oﬀering adequate solutions when an extended evaluation is needed. Eﬀective technology integration in education can therefore help in addressing the functional barriers experienced by students with disabilities, providing them with equitable learning opportunities and a leveled ﬁeld to rightly exhibit their diﬀerential abilities, through provision of necessary support and an equally accessible learning environment to all.
Assistive Devices for Intellectual Disability
• Basic Skill Wooden Puzzles
• We can (daily living activities)
• Calendar of seasons
With the advent of technology-based instruction, and societal need for problem-solving skills, and as the age and experience levels increase among the students, instructional roles are shifting. Guiding the learning process is as important as being the source of knowledge in your subject matter area. Instructor will find themselves learning along with their students as they integrate technology into their teaching and as students find authentic and applicable knowledge from multiple, global sources.
Instructors should expect to work with an instructional team (each partner an expert), in order to prepare course materials, select and use various educational technologies and support and guide learners.
The professionals in faculty instructional support have both pedagogical and technical expertise and are ready to lend their support. seeking out an instructional team, including technician, librarian, graphic designer, or instructional designer. An instructional designer is an expert in packaging-s/he knows the features, strengths and weaknesses of media and can help in using the media to best advantage.