Unit 1: Curriculum and Its’ Designing

1.1. Curriculum-Concept, Types and Models

1.2. Approaches and Steps for Curriculum designing

1.3. Curricular needs of children with hearing impairment in scholastic areas

1.4. Curricular needs of children with hearing impairment in non-scholastic areas

1.5. Curricular framework for 21st Century









1.1. Curriculum-Concept, Types and Models

Curriculum is the heart and soul of any educational process. It is the sum total of all that is rendered by an educational institution in bringing out the required changes in the child. The activities range from classroom to playground, and beyond. As you may have experienced, every society tries to socialise her child through the process of adjustment with the environment in which s/he lives. The curriculum is an instrument to fulfil such an objective. We shall discuss more in this unit about the meaning of curriculum, need and bases of curriculum, curriculum process, and the different types of curriculum.

Concept of curriculum
Curriculum has been viewed by different people in different ways. These can be summarised under following points:

·       Curriculum as 'content' or 'subject matter' taught to the students.

·       Curriculum as written 'courses of study'. The curriculum is always pre-planned. It is documented for reference by the teachers and students.

·       Curriculum as 'courses' offered in a school. Sometimes courses offered at a particular level are treated as curriculum.

·       Curriculum as intended 'learning outcomes'. Curriculum is always purposive, i.e. to achieve certain objectives set by the society. The objectives are reflected in terms of learning outcomes.

·       Curriculum as 'cultural presentation' and 'cultural reproduction'. We know that curriculum is based on social forces. The society frames curriculum in such a way that the needs of future generations are met.

·       Curriculum as 'experience'. Curriculum prescribes a set of learning experiences for the students at a particular level, say for example curriculum for disabled children at the secondary school level. These learning experiences vary from one class to another.

·       Curriculum as 'social reconstruction'. As mentioned above, curriculum is intended to bring desirable change in social order. Intended knowledge is transacted to young generation to improve social life.

·       Curriculum as 'planned learning experiences' offered to students in a school. The curriculum is not an ad hoc arrangement. The learning experiences to be imparted to the students are planned/designed in advance. The objectives and intended outcomes are specifically stated in the curriculum.


Courses of study : This includes the subject mater/syllabus that is taught within the school, and also includes the co-curricular activities.
Social context : Human beings live in a society and a community, and interact with the community members and also outside the community. While interacting within the family, community and outside, one learns many things which are not possible within the classroom. The social context or situations include one's thinking and contribute to one's learning. This is more important for children who grow up through the process of socialisation.
Learning experiences : As noted above, one learns within and outside the class. Everytime one interacts with the social environment, one learns from each encounter. Activity-based teaching-learning leads to generation of more experiences; so also problem-based learning, especially if problems are related to real-life situations. In case of experiental learning, the present learning is based on previous experiences, and also leads/contributes to the repository of experiences within the individual child.
Learning outcomes : This is the most important aspect of the curriculum, i.e. specification of what is to be achieved - may be after one activity or one class period, or even after one year of learning. Learning outcomes are expressed in terms of achievements (and changes in the child due to education) in knowledge, comprehension, skills, attitude, values, etc. Learning outcomes may be specified in broad terms which can be achieved after certain period of time (say, primary, elementary, secondary, etc.), or year-wise for each grade, or for each subject area per semester, etc.

Definitions of Curriculum
Curriculum has been defined in many ways by educationists. Some definitions are very specific and others are very wider in their meaning. Some of the important definitions are given below. You should read these definitions carefully and try to comprehend the underlying meaning of curriculum in each of the definitions.

1.     "A Curriculum is a structured series of intended learning outcomes" (Johnson, 1967).

2.     "Curriculum includes the totality of experiences that a pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school - in the classroom, library, laboratory, workshop, playgrounds and in the numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils. In this case the whole life of the school becomes the curriculum which can tough the life of the students of all points and help in the evolution of balanced personality" (Secondary Education Commission, 1952-53).

3.     "Curriculum is the sum total of student objectives which the school sponsors for the purpose of achieving its objectives" Alberty and Alberty, 1959).

4.     "A Curriculum is the formulation and implementation of an educational proposal, to be taught and learnt within schools or other institutions and for which that institution accepts responsibility at three levels: its rationale, its actual implementation and its effects" (Jenkin and Shipman, 1975).

5.     "Curriculum can refer to the total structure of ideas and activities, developed by an educational institution to meet the needs of students and to achieve desired educational aims" (Derek Rowntree in A Dictionary of Education, 1981).

6.     "A curriculum is all of the experiences that individual learners have in programme of education whose purpose is to achieve broad goals and related specific objectives, which is planned in terms of framework of theory and research or past and present Professional Practice" (Glen Hass, 1987).

Principles Of Curriculum Development
A good curriculum should aim at bringing out the maximum possible potentials of a child – may him be retarded or non-retarded. It has to take into consideration certain basic principles to arrive at a curriculum with achievable, practical goals.

Basic considerations and steps in curriculum development
A good curriculum influences the thoughts, feelings, ideas and opinions of the learner in the given context. A good curriculum developed on sound learning theory principles will consider the environmental influences on the teaching learning situations. This includes,

1.     Government policies: Disabilities is an area of responsibility for more than one Government department. Health, Education, Welfare and Labour departments have their specific role to play in disability rehabilitation. In education, in India for instance, special education is the responsibility of Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment whereas integrated education is under Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development. The curricular decisions are influenced by the respective departments. It comes under as it is governed by the rules and regulations of the respective department. The National Policy on Education (1986) has specific mention on special education which has brought about changes in special education and integrated education. Similarly the Persons with Disabilities Act (1995) has certain mandates for education of the disabled persons, which is yet to be implemented. This is likely to have effect on teacher preparation, curriculum and instructions and other related areas.

2.     The school administrative policies: Many schools have their own policies and philosophy though they follow a prescribed syllabus of CBSE, ICSE, State Board and so on. The curriculum for special education should take into account the schools policies. For instance, admission decisions on age restriction or type or severity level of disability will influence the content of special education curriculum.

3.     Support systems available: Many children with disabilities require therapeutic, medical or counseling support. Not all schools are equipped with these facilities. Depending on the availability or non-availability of such facilities, the curriculum needs to include/make referral arrangements to ensure a wholistic curricular provision for the students who require these facilities.

4.     Family support: Every special education programme needs an extension of school training at home for successful transfer of training. A good curriculum should include activities for home training, which the teacher transfers to the caretaker for training at home. Suitable alternative should be sought for residential schools.

5.     Community resources: Normalization through integration and inclusion is the ultimate aim of special education, which cannot be accomplished without community participation. While developing the curriculum, the educational milieu should include the available community resources specific to each community for successful community participation and thus the spontaneous integration.

6.     Available teacher competencies: While regular school teachers are sensitized to special education in recent years, certain areas in disabilities require specific teacher competencies which a trained teacher can offer. The curriculum should focus on objective judgement of the competencies of the teacher and alternatives for filling gaps.

7.     Student profile: The disabilities vary in their nature and therefore, children with different disabilities require different content and process for transaction, yet maintaining the general curricular demands to the extent possible. Education of children with hearing impairment, visually impairment or locomotor disabilities have the prescribed school curriculum with certain modifications – deletion of certain content (such as second language for hearing impaired children) and addition of disability specific educational requirement called the `plus curriculum’ (such as Braille skills for visually impaired children). Functional curriculum is developed for children with mental retardation, which is, totally function oriented leading to personal adequacy, social competency and vocational preparation.

8.     Financial availability: While the basic requirements are to be met, the extent of success in any curriculum development depends on how practical and feasible it is. The financial implications play a major role in the decision making of `how much’ and `how far’ regarding content and process decision.
Whether one follows the child centered or activity centered or wholistic approach, the above considerations are of utmost importance. The above eight factors are inter-related among themselves and they interact with the teaching learning situation between the teacher and the learner. Thus if anyone of them has a change, it will affect the total, learning environment and its other components.

Types of Curriculum
Following are some of the important types of curriculum :

1.     Subject-Centred Curriculum

2.     Activity-Centred Curriculum

3.     Learner-Centred Curriculum

4.     Integrated Curriculum

5.     Core Pattern Curriculum

Let us discuss all the five types in brief.

Subject-Centred Curriculum
As the title indicates, this type of curriculum is subject-based. It is a traditional curriculum and most of the schools still follow such curriculum. This curriculum includes different branches of knowledge, such as, Language, Mathematics, History, Geography, Science, etc. Subjects are included according to the learning levels of the learners. Subjects are presented in suitable units or branches. The teacher focuses his/her effort/attention on making students learn the items in the subjects and courses of study without adding or subtracting anything from his/her side. Though the teacher makes efforts to effectively teach the subject concerned, based on whatever is already given.

Activity-Centred Curriculum
Some experts view curriculum "as various forms of activity that are grand expression of the human spirit and that are of the greatest and most permanent significance to the wide world". According activity-centred curriculum students, should learn by engaging themselves in various activities which is desirable and purposeful. It stresses the practical aspects of life. Emphasis is given on "learning by doing" and "learning by relating to life". Laboratory work and field work are given more importance. Activity-centred curriculum may consist of activities such as making a dress, constructing a box, building a miniature house, etc. The activities become the focus (rather than the fixed content), which are intended to achieve the pre-stipulated objectives.

Learner Centred Curriculum
In learner-centred curriculum, the learner occupies the central position in the teaching-learning exercise. Stress is given on the all-round development of the learner. Provision is made for the varying abilities and interests of learners. They have choices and options to fulfil their needs and interests. The learner-centred curriculum is based on the psychological foundations of education. Subject-matter and objectives are identified with the cooperation of or in collaboration with thelearner. Importance is given to the 'process' of acquiring knowledge or facts, rather than simple acquisition of knowledge. Attempt is made to orient selection of content and teaching-learning towards every individual child, based on his/her abilities, interest, aptitude and learning styles.

Integrated Curriculum
Integrated curriculum involves judicious mix of subject-centred, learner-centred and activity-centred curriculum. It enables the students to get a comprehensive view of the concepts to be learnt. For example, a course like "History of Civilization" may be an integrated curriculum representing history, literature, art, music, and sociology.
The traditional curriculum is too much formal, fragmented and isolated. As a result it fails to give a comprehensive view of life. It does not lead to unity of knowledge. Introduction of integrated curriculum overcomes such barriers.

Core Pattern Curriculum
The core-pattern curriculum is a problem-centred curriculum. It gives importance to preparation for living in a democratic society. So, emphasis is laid on the all round development - physical, mental, moral, emotional and spiritual - development of the learner. According to the core-pattern of curriculum, a long block of two of three periods at a time is desirable. A long block of two to three periods allows time for field-trips and short excursions without disturbing other classes.
It gives importance to guidance and counselling. The National Policy on Education (1986) has given an important place to core curriculum. It observed, "The National System of Education will be based on a national curriculum framework which contains a common core along with other components that are flexible". While the core curriculum may become common to all classes, teachers and students in a state or a nation, the schools are free to design and implement the non-core aspects based on the needs of students or the community or regional needs.

Models of Curriculum

Objective model

The objectives model of curriculum design contains content that is based on specific objectives. These objectives should specify expected learning outcomes in terms of specific measurable behaviours.

·       It is based on Specific objectives.

·       Objectives should specify the desired learning outcomes.

·       This model comprises four main steps

·       Agreeing on broad aims which are analyzed into objectives,

·       Constructing a curriculum to achieve these objectives,

·       Refining the curriculum in practice by testing its capacity to achieve its objectives, and

·       Communicating the curriculum to the teachers through the conceptual framework of the objectives.

In this model:

·       Evaluation is done at each stage of the curriculum design.

·       Content, materials and methodology are derived from the objectives.

The Process Model

·       The Process Model Unlike the objectives model, this model does not consider objectives to be important. Using this model presupposes that:

·       Content has its own value. Therefore, it should not be selected on the basis of the achievement of objectives.

·       Content involves procedures, concepts and criteria that can be used to appraise the curriculum.

·       Translating content into objectives may result in knowledge being distorted.

·       Learning activities have their own value and can be measured in terms of their own standard. For this reason, learning activities can stand on their own.

In the process model:

·       Content and methodology are derived from the goals. Each of them has outcomes that can be evaluated.

·       The evaluation results from the outcome are fed into the goals, which will later influence the content and methodologies. Unlike the objectives model, there is no direct evaluation of the content and methodologies

Tyler’s Model

·       Tyler’s model for curriculum designing is based on the following questions:

·       What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?

·       What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?

·       How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?

·       How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

This model is linear in nature, starting from objectives and ending with evaluation. In this model, evaluation is terminal. It is important to note that:

·       Objectives form the basis for the selection and organization of learning experiences.

·       Objectives form the basis for assessing the curriculum.

·       Objectives are derived from the learner, contemporary life and subject specialist.

·        To Tyler, evaluation is a process by which one matches the initial expectation with the outcomes.

Wheeler’s Model

·       Wheeler’s model for curriculum design is an improvement upon Tyler’s model. Instead of a linear model, Wheeler developed a cyclical model.

·       Evaluation in Wheeler’s model is not terminal.

·       Findings from the evaluation are fed back into the objectives and the goals, which influence other stages.

Wheeler contends that:

·       Aims should be discussed as behaviors referring to the end product of learning which yields the ultimate goals. One can think of these ultimate goals as outcomes.

·       Aims are formulated from the general to the specific in curriculum planning. This results in the formulation of objectives at both an enabling and a terminal level.

·       Content is distinguished from the learning experiences which determine that content.

Kerr’s Model

Most of the features in Kerr’s model resemble those in Wheeler’s and Tyler’s models. However, Kerr divided the domains into four areas

1. Objectives

2. knowledge

3. Evaluation, and

4. School learning experiences.

·       A simplified version of Kerr’s model of curriculum design is shown below.

What you should note about the model is that:

The four domains are interrelated directly or indirectly, and

Objectives are derived from school learning experiences and knowledge.

In Kerr’s model, objectives are divided into three groups:

·      Affective

·      Cognitive

·      Psychomotor

The model further indicates that knowledge should be

·      Organized,

·      Integrated,

·      Sequenced, and

·      Reinforced.

Evaluation in Kerr’s model is the collection of information for use in making decisions about the curriculum.

School learning experiences are influenced by societal opportunities, the school community, pupil and teacher, content, objectives.


1.2. Approaches and Steps for Curriculum designing


Approaches to Curriculum Development

Approach to curriculum is a design for deciding the various aspects of curriculum development and transaction. It is a planned or pattern of organization that the teachers follow in providing learning experiences to the learners.
There are various approaches to curriculum development. The Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU, 1997) has grouped them into in four categories:

Approaches to Curriculum Development

Subject-centred approach : According to the subject-centred approach, curriculum is organized around separate subject areas of knowledge. This is one of the most widely used approaches in curriculum development. The main responsibility of curriculum planner is to determine the different subject areas to be offered and different learning experiences from each subject to be offered. The programme of studies may be divided into different subjects like, language, mathematics, science, social studies, etc.
Broadfields approach : In this approach, curriculum is organized by combining two or more subject areas into a single broad field. Two or more closely related subjects/ disciplines are integrated to form a broad field. For example, a broad subject Biology is developed by combining the knowledge of subjects like, botany, zoology, physiology, anactomy, etc.
Social problems approach : In this approach, we organize curriculum around major problems found in the society. The curriculum developed through this approach creates an awareness among the learners regarding the social problems, and enables them to solve these problems. Through this approach, courses such as environmental problems, religion, population, communication, technology, etc. can be developed.
Learner-centred approach : This approach focuses on the personal and social needs of the learners in the course content. This approach prepares the children to face the present, rather than future. Psychologically sound and purposeful learning experiences should be planed to meet the learners needs. The learning experiences should be related to the developmental stages of the learners like, peer group interaction, developing personal values, developmental changes during puberty, adolescents, etc.

Steps for Curriculum designing

The curriculum development process can be divided into six stages. They are :

Let us discuss each stage of curriculum development in detail.

1.     Assessment of Educational Needs

India is a nation of multi-culture. Since the background of students differs from culture to culture, place to place, time to time, even student to student in a classroom, it is important to assess the needs of the students. We should identify the target group for whom curriculum is to be developed, as also their needs.
As a first step, the curriculum planners should make a job analysis of different categories of learners. The job analysis involves a detailed description of activities and the requirements of a job. Here, job involves the learning experiences. It provides details of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required by students/individuals to perform the tasks involved in a job.
After the job analysis of different categories of students has been undertaken, an assessment of their educational needs is undertaken. A need is a discrepancy or deficiency between what is and what ought to be (Wilson, 1987). Educational needs are felt when a student lacks requisite knowledge, skills or attitudes. Fig. 2.5 illustrates the concept of need.

Concept of need

The following techniques can be used for the assessment of educational needs of the learners.

·       Diagnostic tests.

·       Questionnaires.

·       Focus group discussion.

·       Observation of learners’ classroom behavior.

·       Staff assessment.

·       Analysis of pupils’ answer scripts.

·       Periodic assessment report

2.     Formulation of Objectives
Curriculum is a planned educational programme. It has certain objectives and processes for their attainment. These objectives are of three types. They are: short-term objectives, mediatory objectives, and long-term objectives.

Long-term objectives are expected to be attainable by going through the entire schooling. These objectives cannot be observed immediately or through just year-end-examinations. A student, after spending, for instance, ten years of schooling may attain broad and comprehensive objectives of developing into a full-fledged and matured person entering adulthood, with necessary skills, knowledge, attitude and values. The understanding of the world and the environment around is more intense and clear; and one is capable of studying further or even contributing to the economy through small-scale gainful work. The long-term goals are to be pre-determined before formulating the curriculum, and should form as over-riding concerns of the entire schooling experiences.
Mediatory objectives are derived from the long-term objectives. These objectives help in promoting mediatory objectives. These objectives refer to education at various levels (i.e. various grades) such as, grade V, grade XII, etc. It may also refer to a particular content area, e.g. language, mathematics, sciences, etc. These objectives can be measured after completion of one grade or level. Remember that mediatory objectives lead the student/learner to achieve the long-term objectives.
Short-term objectives , known as specific objectives, are expressed in terms of behavioural outcomes, in terms of what the teacher wants to attain through teaching or what a learner is able to learn in a particular lesson or through a particular activity.
The point that we want to bring home is that the long-term objectives should be divided into mediatory and short-term objectives, with proper linkages and with due weightages while planning curriculum for school education. Also may be noted that these linkages may refer to overall development of the child or specific subject areas or skill areas or knowledge areas, and the like.

3.     Selection of Learning Experiences
Curriculum should provide physical, mental and emotional experiences, or their integration to the learners. Teaching various subjects, providing various activities in the laboratory, in the fields, through projects, seminars, debates, discussions, groupworks, etc. are examples of learning experiences. These experiences lead to change in behaviour of the learner. Change in behaviour of the learners lead to fulfillment of pre-stipulated curricular objectives.
These learning experiences should be in accordance with the learning levels of the learners. Their age, maturation, cognitive development, physical development and socio-economic background should be taken into consideration while selecting learning experiences. At the time of curriculum planning, it is considered important as to design tasks for the teacher and students to carry out in the teaching-learning process which shall specifically lead to pre-stipulated learning experiences by the students. Further, the teacher is also provided enough flexibility to design activities leading to specific learning experiences, based on broad guidelines provided in the curriculum.

4.     Determination of the Contents
The content is a tool to attain the objectives of curriculum. The contents contribute to the growth and development of democratic, secular and socialist society to a large extent. So, the content is considered one of the most important components of curriculum development. Long ago, Stanley and Shores (1957) suggested five criteria for the selection of the content :

·       Is the subject-matter significant to an organized field of knowledge?

·       Does the subject-matter stand the test of survival?

·       Is the subject-matter useful?

·       Is the subject-matter interesting to the learner?

·       Does the subject-matter contribute to the growth and development of a democratic society?

5.     Preparation of Learning Materials/Objectives
Learning materials include textbooks, supplementary readers, work books, teacher guides, etc. These materials could be in the form of print, audio, video and audio-vision format. The important task at this stage is to sequentially arrange the educational activities based on selected learning experiences and contents. The learning experiences and activities should be integrated.

Bruner talks about three modes of learning. They are :

·       Enactive mode (which is activity-based).

·       Ionic mode (which uses images and diagrams).

·       Symbolic mode (which uses symbols/languages).

If you observe these modes, you will find that the child starts learning simple concepts based on activity and then leads towards learning difficult concepts through languages. Each of these modes of learning has certain distinguishing characteristics for a particular age-group. While developing the materials/activities these things should be taken into consideration.

6.     Implementation
After the preparation of learning materials/activities, the next step is the implementation of the curriculum in the school. Aggarwal (1990) suggested the following major factors leading to the efficient implementation of the curriculum :

                                i.            Adequate preparation of the teachers by the boards and State Departments of Education for meeting the changed requirements of the new curriculum.

                              ii.            Sufficient supply of the teaching aids and equipment needed for the implementation of the curriculum.

                            iii.            Receptivity of the community of the new curriculum.

                            iv.            Adequate preparedness of the students to accept the new curriculum with its additional requirements of energy, money and time.

                              v.            Adequate supervisory and guidance facilities for teachers needed for effective implementation of the curriculum.

7.     Evaluation
Evaluation is the last stage of the curriculum development process. The purpose of evaluation of curriculum is to ensure quality control for effecting suitable modifications in the curriculum. This may be quantitative or qualitative, or both. Evaluation is done both at micro-level and macro-level. It also may be done both at 'formative' and 'summative' stage. Curriculum evaluation determines the worth of curriculum. It determines, whether curriculum fulfils its purposes for which it is planned.
There are two types of evaluations, given as follows :

·       Pupil evaluation: The aim of student evaluation is to know the extent to which educational objectives are achieved by the students. There are various techniques of pupil evaluation.
*    Oral evaluation.
*    Extent of participation in the classroom teaching-learning, extra-curricular activities.
*    Written evaluation of various kinds such as project report, class notes, assignment responses, continuos class tests, term-end-examination, etc.

Curriculum evaluation: Curriculum evaluation refers to evaluation of the different components of curriculum, viz., objectives, contents, learning materials, teaching strategies, students evaluation procedure, etc. The purpose of curriculum evaluation is to get feedback for further modification and refinement in the curriculum.


1.3. Curricular needs of children with hearing impairment in scholastic areas


Perceiving the needs of the learners, appropriate changes are made in the curriculum, syllabus and textbook on a need basis. The students are assessed not only during examinations but all through the term. Evaluation is conducted through activities, observation and group discussion. The evaluation is done under two parts namely scholastic and co-scholastic activities. Scholastic activities have been further classified into two parts viz. Formative and Summative Assessments. Students get knowledge of the subjects through scholastic activities. They get knowledge of the society. The scholastic area and achievement of students with hearing loss is one of the most important determinants of recipient’s quality of life in schooling system. The scholastic achievement of students with hearing loss attending the mainstream schools and to compare their scholastic performance to their normal hearing peers. So scholastic performance in mainstream schools is a most important factor because it is all round development of the children with hearing impairment is the dynamic trend in the new educational system. The school has now emerged as a place where students acquire various skills. Effective schools follow a holistic approach to education i.e. an integrated development stressing on physical, mental, moral and social aspects. A lot of innovations are going on in the field of education. It has become child “centred”. A teacher inspires a child to know things himself through constructive activities. The main function of the teacher is to help children develop their talents, abilities and capabilities. This education system encourages a child to acquire more knowledge. A holistic approach to education at the elementary level is a must as it is the most important subsection of the whole education system. Such an approach will facilitate the total development of a child by providing the right atmosphere for learners to develop and enrich their talent. Building self-concept, self image, sense of enterprise and sportsmanship and so on should be part of the educational process. Therefore the curriculum is designed giving due emphasis on both scholastic and co-scholastic area.

Inclusive Education is the ideal one for the children with hearing impairment to get the education, because the Incidental rate is 3% among 1000 children. In general the educational programmes are covered with curriculum. Curriculum is the sum of all activities, experience and learning opportunities for which an institution or a teacher takes responsibility – either deliberately or by default.

The Importance of Scholastic Activities

There are many important scholastic activities for children with hearing impairment. These are:

·       Providing the students with the experience and skills that are necessary

·       Enhancing the students’ talents and abilities.

·       Inculcating the collective spirit in the students and training them on collaborative work.

·       Training the students on overcoming the problems by own self.

·       Education the students with the ability to cope and respond to others.

·       Provide concrete and direct experiences and entail interaction with the components which helps with the learning of knowledge and skills and the gratification of the motive to do new idea.

·       Strengthen the motive to learn and enhance the students’ scholastic achievement and encourage active role in learning, allow for personal experience and help the students to learn many skills.

·       Help the students to discover and promote their abilities and to make possible self-learning, life-long learning and problem-solving idea.

Scholastic achievement of students with Hearing Loss.

Language and speech- The ability to learn language and speech is the highest development of children with hearing impaired.

Intellectual ability- Process of thinking of deaf children and normal peers are found to be similar also cognitive abilities and develop verbal intelligence.

Academic Performance- Hearing impaired children are frequently handicapped in various degree of hearing loss and it affects educational performance and particularly reading which relies heavily upon language skill. So after scholastic achievement hearing loss student can develop the academic performance.

Adjustment of social- Our social inter action depends upon communications. So deaf children have communication problems. That’s why it should have problem of social inter action. Such children live in a world of isolation and form a group of their own, an association of the deaf for their common interest and interaction. So after scholastic achievement student with hearing loss can develop on adjustment in social inter-action.

Behavioural problem- Deaf learners feel invariably inferior and helpless in adapting to circumstances that require verbal communication. So regard non-verbal communication absence of verbal they have poor self poor concept which damages the development of personality but with the help of mainstream education which is scholastic achievement they develop the personality and reduced the problem behaviour is reduce regard various social academic aspect.

Socially handicapped – Learners with hearing loss cannot adjust with society because they suffer from communication difficulty and fail to understand what normal people say.But after scholastic achievement with the help of mainstream they develop communication skill and mixing the oral social which is social of communication and reduced of socially handicapped.

Problem in personal and social development- Language becomes a barrier for deaf learner for purpose of communication with others. So this affects the socialization process and plays a vital role in the personal and social development of hearing loss learner. So with the help of scholastic achievement in mainstream in regular class room it develops the normal peer acceptance and reduces the problem in personal.

Mainstream Placement- Another choice commonly made for children with hearing loss is mainstream placement. The term mainstreaming is used to refer to the placement of regular education classes based on their skill level. Mainstream education does seek to educate the “whole child” and provide exposure to many preschool programmes. However, many schools turn to more directive teaching models by kindergarten wherein children sit at desks, teachers instruct, and children acquire facts, skills, and concepts through drill and practice.

Tips for the teachers to do adaptation in curriculum:

Curricular adaptations are mostly suggested for hearing impaired children who need nonaudio experience in adaptation of learning materials for the use of children with hearing disabilities.

The teacher of the hearing impaired had to make special and planned efforts to provide opportunities in following the criteria repeatedly,

1. Listening with understanding.

2. Interpreting the written symbol with picture (Stage by stage it has to be develop based standard).

3. Try to develop their reasoning capacity through experience.

4. To provide realistic experience for concept building.

5. Give opportunities for their expressive language (communicating by speaking or by writing).

6. Try to teach the concept in an enjoyable and interesting manner.

7. Need sustained efforts for a long period of time to get response, because the results will not be seen immediately.

8. Simply the actual lesson into small, small task and directed activity based.

9. Find out the meaning for the complex word in the particular lesson.

10. Try to avoid the complex sentence while speaking and writing.

11. Try to avoid the different meaning for same word.

12. Teach the task with appropriate aid.

13. To use visual aids as much as possible.

14. To avoid more speaking during taking class.

15. Speak clearly with correct pronunciation with appropriate sound level.

16. Don’t insist in completing the task without comprehension.

17. After finishing each task to evaluate the understanding performance of the child with hearing impairment.

18. Utilize the sign and written mode wherever it possible.

19. Try to develops their self-realization based skills through intentional and unintentional learning experience.

20. Adaptation in terms of method of presentation, display, content etc may be necessary to enhance the learning experience of these children.

21. Minimize distractions and background noise.

22. Make sure to catch student’s attention before speaking. While teaching, it is very important to make eye contact with all children, so that everyone feels that they are being looked at. Besides talking, it is also good to use nonverbal communications such as gestures and animations to make teaching effective for all children and more so for children with hearing loss.

Learning Pyramid helps the teacher plan the content of his/her lessons. The teacher first identifies the key concepts or skills in the topic or content and then categorizes the content in terms of three degrees of learning:

·      What some students will learn – top of the Pyramid

·      What most, but not all, students will learn – middle of the Pyramid

·      What all students will learn – base of the Pyramid

In an inclusive classroom, the teacher will have to first identify the essentials of desirable content and then plan his/her strategy accordingly.

Differentiated instruction addresses diversity and helps teachers in accommodating students with a wide range of abilities, interests, and learning styles. Teachers can differentiate curriculum in three broad areas: content (matter to be taught), process (the way it is taught), and product (expected learning outcomes). Because students with hearing impairment experience difficulty with receptive and expressive language, with remembering, and with understanding abstract ideas, techniques of teaching need to be chosen with care.

Strategies and Techniques for Developing Reading

Reading is the process of constructing meaning from the text. It involves five basic core abilities: phonics, phonological awareness, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension.

Five Basic Core Abilities

Strategies for mathematical instructions

·      Provide meaningful situations and enriched experiences with opportunities for exploration and problem-solving.

·      Provide effective vocabulary, label objects and also pre-teach mathematical concepts and ideas.

·      Consider parents as equal partners as home situations provide limitless opportunities to explore and discuss math concepts during daily routines.

·      For teaching concepts such as fractions, etc. manipulative, verbal, pictorial, and symbolic modes so also integrating it with drawing and craft activities will be effective.

·      Word problems could be introduced with informal stories or dramatization and then translating into the math problem.


1.4. Curricular needs of children with hearing impairment in non-scholastic areas


A Child’s holistic development is not measured only by his/her academic achievements. Sports & Games, Arts & Fine Arts and social skills combined together with intellectual excellence makes a student what he or she will be when he blossoms into an adult. In view of this, opens an avenue of non-Scholastic activities to prepare children with hearing impairment for his greater journey of life. Non-scholastic abilities are not just ‘nice to have’ or ‘desirable to have’, but ‘must have’ qualities. Non-scholastic activities like Yoga, Music, Dance, Sports and other activities moulds the wholesome personality in students and implemented for character development in students.

Meaning- The non-scholastic abilities are concerned with the learner’s attitudes, interests, values, feelings, habits, social interaction which cannot be accessed directly. It is assessed indirectly by merely observing the behaviour of the learner and his experiences and also through biographies, self-reports and checklists etc. The non-scholastic aspects of children with hearing impairment techniques have been Subjective Methods, Objective Methods and Projective Techniques

Life Skills

Life Skills are the abilities that allow children to maintain a healthy body, mind, and emotions. Students may understand themselves and create a connection with classmates and others using these talents. Students will acquire a good attitude, self-reliance, psychosocial competence, and interpersonal skills if these life skills are effectively developed and applied. There are 10 Life Skills included in Co-Scholastic Areas, divided into three categories: Thinking Skills, Social Skills, and Emotional Skills.

Performing and Visual Arts

These abilities assist youngsters in identifying and developing their artistic abilities. It provides the ideal venue for them to exhibit their unique ideas, sense of beauty, and creative potential.

Values and Attitudes

The age of a student is ideal for instilling good attitudes and values. Great ideas and example values can only be nurtured in young children through various stories, songs, historical events, and everyday happenings. Students’ values and attitudes have been classified into four categories.

Emotional Intelligence

These abilities assist youngsters in understanding and dealing with their emotions, anger, and stress.

Advantages of Co-scholastic Activities


Sense Training

Sense training is one of the co-curricular activities that help the child with special needs to develop all the senses, muscular co-ordination, attention span, etc. For example, the Children with hearing impairment these activities also help in developing language, speech and listening skills. The child stores the information he/she receives through the senses of hearing, sight, touch, taste and smell for future comparisons.

Advantages of Sense Training Activities

1. Assists in the cognitive development and opens the gateways of learning.

2. Helps to develop concepts.

3. Provide an opportunity for language development.

4. Encourages spontaneous vocalization and usage of language.

5. Provide opportunity to express emotions and ideas.

6. Develops creativity in a child.

Physical Education

Physical education is one of the important cocurricular activities and especially for the children with special needs, because of its many advantages.

Importance of Physical Education for Special children

Apart from developing physique and promoting the physical growth and development of a child, physical education also assists in:

·       Disciplining

·       Socialization

·       Emotional development

·       Moral education

·       Catharsis of pent up energy

·       Value education

·       Recreation and so on.

For example, with reference to special children with hearing impairment, it may additionally help in the development of:

·      Language

·      Speech

·      Auditory Training

Language Development: The activities of physical education can assist in developing some components of Natural language and communication. For example while Playing games the children would be exposed to the language like ‘Bring the ball’, ‘raise your hands straight’, ‘hold the dumbles tight’ etc. Physical education would provide an excellent opportunity to teach verbs in a context like Kick, throw, hit, catch, etc. With a little foresight, the teachers could make use of every single opportunity during physical education to develop language in children with hearing impairment.

Speech: Activities of physical education can assists in speech teaching. Such activities help the children to establish breath control, and also helps in the motor development. Children with hearing impairment are known to have faulty breathing pattern, so yoga exercise, swimming or games like Kabaddi, blowing balloons or candles can assist in the speech teaching or correcting activities.

Auditory Training: While playing games or Doing physical exercises the beats of drums, the whistles or the commands of teachers also would assist in auditory training. Games like follow the leader, musical chair, could also be used by teachers to undertake auditory training by providing an enjoyable experience.

Art and Craft for the Hearing Impaired

It is a fine tool of communicating the expressions, thoughts, emotions and feelings. It includes both fine arts and performing arts.

Importance of Art and Craft in general:

·      Developing the aesthetics

·      Expressing emotions

·      Channelizing thoughts

·      Developing creativity

·      Motor and Physical development

·      Intellectual development

·      Integration of ideas

·      Socialization

Inclusive education gives children with disabilities equal scope to take part in all the activities. In many cases, a one-to-one relationship accelerates their progress in curricular as well as co-curricular activities. At times, it is a child with a disability who gives the leadership and help to a non-disabled one. This results in healthy development of both. Taking into account the large number of disabled children and limited number of special or integrated schools, State Governments are making special i plans for inclusion in more and more institutions.


1.5. Curricular framework for 21st Century


The National Education Policy 2020 (NEP 2020) aims to devise four National Curriculum Frameworks (NCFs), for which a comprehensive strategy has been worked out jointly by the Ministry of Education (MoE) and National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT). A mandate document was released recently to bring about a paradigm shift in education with focus on holistic development of children, emphasis on skilling, vital role of teachers, learning in mother tongue, cultural rootedness.

·       National Curriculum Framework for Early Childhood Care and Education (NCFECCE)

·       National Curriculum Framework for School Education (NCFSE)

·       National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education (NCFTE)

·       National Curriculum Framework for Adult Education (NCFAE)

The National Education Policy (NEP) is a comprehensive framework to guide the development of education in the country. As a policy of education, it not only guides the development of education but also provides directions for regulating and promoting education. The education policy covers education at all the stages including early childhood care and education, school education, higher education, teacher education and vocational education.The first National Policy on Education was formulated in 1968, the second was in 1986 modified in 1992 and the latest National Education Policy in India is NEP, 2020.

The National Education Policy 2020 is the first education policy of the 21st century in India and aims to address the many growing developmental imperatives of our country. NEP, 2020 was released on 29th July, 2020 in India. As per the policy the aim is to have an education system by 2040 that is second to none, with equitable access to the highest-quality education for all learners regardless of social or economic background.

The Policy proposes the revision and revamping of all aspects of the education structure, including its regulation and governance, to create a new system that is aligned with the aspirational goals of 21st century education, including SDG4, while building upon India’s traditions and value systems.

The salient features of NEP 2020 were formulated based on the foundational pillars of Access, Quality, Equity, Affordability and Accountability. The revised policy is aligned with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It focuses on remoulding India into a global knowledge superpower by making school education more holistic, multidisciplinary, flexible, suited to 21st-century requirements and aimed at bringing out the individual capabilities of each student. Some of the salient features of NEP 2020 are:

 Ensuring universal access at all levels of school education

National Education Policy 2020 focuses on ensuring universal access to school education at all levels. Some of the ways to achieve this are:

 Attaining Foundational Literacy and Numeracy (FLN)

One of the important salient features of NEP 2020 is recognising Foundational Literacy and Numeracy as an urgent and essential prerequisite to learning. NEP 2020 calls for building the National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy by MHRD. In this mission, the states will prepare an implementation plan to achieve foundational literacy and numeracy in all primary school students until grade 3 by 2025.

 Reforms in school curricula and pedagogy

The new school curricula and pedagogy aim for the holistic development of students by equipping them with vital 21st-century skills, reducing curricular content to improve essential learning and critical thinking and emphasising experiential learning. This will allow students to have increased flexibility and choice of subjects. There will be no hard separations between arts and sciences, between vocational and academic streams, and between curricular and extracurricular activities.

 In addition, vocational education will be introduced during Grades 6-8, with internship opportunities offered under a practice-based curriculum designed by NCERT while framing a new National Curriculum Framework for School (NCFSE).

 Focus on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)

With the focus on Early Childhood Care and Education, the old 10+2 structure is replaced by a new 5+3+3+4 model to be in tune with the ages 3-8, 8-11, 11-14, and 14-18 years. This is one of the main salient features of NEP 2020, which will bring the formerly uncovered age group of three-six years under formal school curriculum guidelines. This is because the age group of 3-8 years has been recognised globally as a critical  time for the development of the mental abilities of a child.