Unit 4: Curricular Adaptation

4.1. Curricular Adaptation- Meaning and Principles

4.2. Need Assessment and decision making for Adaptation

4.3. Adapting Curriculum- Content, Teaching-learning Material, and Instruction

4.4. Types of Adaptation and Process

4.5. Adaptation and Accommodations in Student’s Evaluation and Examinations











4.1. Curricular Adaptation- Meaning and Principles


Today’s classrooms are diverse and inclusive by nature. Differentiation of instruction and assessment and the principles of universal design are now recognized practices for teachers. Both differentiation and universal design provide systematic approaches to setting goals, choosing or creating flexible materials and media, and assessment.  To undertake differentiation and universal design, teachers need to be aware of a range of accommodations (multiple means of representation, of expression, and/or of engagement) that may be necessary to help each student in the classroom succeed.  These accommodations may take the form of adaptations and/or modifications.    

Many students with special needs and significant learning challenges will be able to achieve the learning outcomes for subjects or courses with no or minor adaptations. Some may be able to achieve the learning outcomes of some subjects or courses with adaptations.  A small proportion will need to work on individualized outcomes, goals different than the curriculum; this is referred to as modification.

Curriculum adaptation involves differentiation to meet the needs of all students. The content, the teaching process, assessment and evaluation, and the physical environment may be modified to help students to achieve success in the classroom. The kind of activities chosen by the teacher, including group activities, must be flexible and reflect the background knowledge of small groups or individual students. The following shows the adaptations that are required in different areas for inclusive pedagogy.

Curricular Adaptations are changes permissible in educational environments which allow the student equal opportunity to obtain access, results, benefits, and levels of achievement. These adaptations consist of both accommodations and modifications.

·      Some curricular adaptations do not fundamentally alter or lower standards or expectations in either the instructional or assessment phases of a course of study and can be designated as “accommodations.” These accommodations provide access to participate in the L.R.E. and an opportunity to demonstrate mastery of performance standards.

·      Accommodations are changes in course content, teaching strategies, standards, test presentation, location, timing, scheduling, expectations, student responses, environmental structuring, and/or other attributes which provide access for a student with a disability to participate in a course/standard/test, which DO NOT fundamentally alter or lower the standard or expectations of the course/standard/test.

·       Some adaptations do alter or lower standards or expectations and can be termed “modifications.” These modifications, although providing access, will necessitate careful selection of assessment components to achieve accountability for performance.

·       Modifications are changes in course content, teaching strategies, standards, test presentation, location, timing, scheduling, expectations, student responses, environmental structuring, and/or other attributes which provide access for a student with a disability to participate in a course/standard/test, which DO fundamentally alter or lower the standard or expectations of the course/standard/test.

In case of content, teaching and assessment, the following are some examples of curricular adaptations that indicate that these adaptations can be used for all children in the classroom and are not limited to CWSN. These strategies create a universal design of learning in inclusive classrooms.

Teachers teaching content using diverse strategies-These include strategies like verbal, visual, kinesthetically, written, proceeding from simple to complex, concrete to abstract, step by step, scaffolding, concept maps, projects, group work, peer tutoring, using prior knowledge, brainstorming, dramatisation, giving extra time, giving alternative activities, drill activities, shortening assignments, organizing excursions/ trips, using large fonts, Braille or tacitly coded material, toys or blocks, carbon or xerox copy of notes, hand puppets, real life experiences, real objects, multiple choice questions, children’s literature, magazines and journals, etc.

Students expressing learning in diverse ways- These include strategies like oral, written, tactual, gestures, drawing, acting, ICT, framing questions, paired reading, storytelling, song, rhymes, role play, discussions, debates, language games, flash cards, quizzes, graphic organizers, outlining passages, highlighting, and paper cutting/ folding, etc.

Using supplementary material like artifacts, calculators/talking calculators, Taylor frame, abacus, Brailler, geometrical kit, Geo – board, Tactile board, Geometric shape board (for circle, graph, representation), Tactile graph sheet (for bar-graph, histograph etc), 3-d blocks and figures, manipulatives, flash cards or pictures on paper, posters, chalkboard, projection screens, computers, books on tape and computerized text reader, screen readers, voice synthesis, scanners, daisy books, multimedia gadgets like CDs, MP3s, talking watches and talking clocks, videos/movies, modeling material like clay, textured objects/raised line paper, games and puzzles, etc, can help all children learn.

Why is Curriculum Adaptation necessary?

·      Curriculum adaptation is a form of reasonable accommodation as mandated by the UNCRPD 2006, which facilitates the teaching-learning process when there are students with learning difficulties in the mainstream classroom.

·      Curriculum adaptations are made to simplify and reduce the content so that learners with difficulties can absorb the most critical part of the curriculum.

·      Adaptation of the curriculum ensures that all learners get access to quality and meaningful learning experiences.

·      Children with learning difficulties do not feel excluded when it comes to understanding the subject matter.

The following principles should be considered for adapting the curriculum:

a) The adaptation should not change the original concept of the curriculum used because the objectives of adaptation is to provide some learning experiences to all learners.

b) For providing same experiences, compensatory activities should be planned in such a way that the child gets a holistic picture of the concepts taught in the regular classes. The objective of the instructional material should remain same for all learners.

c) Modification in the instructional material should aim to facilitate maximum participation of children with learning difficulties in such a way that it also motivates all learners in the classroom.

d) Adjustments or modifications can be made in: v Teaching and learning environment v Teaching and learning strategies v Teaching and learning support materials that enhance a learners performance and allows at least partial participation in a learning activity v Level of support v Assessment

e) For any adaptation to be effective it must FLOW: v Fit into the classroom environment v Lend themselves in meeting individual student needs v Optimize understanding for each student v Work well with activities planned for the lesson. 


4.2. Need Assessment and decision making for Adaptation


Identification of needs of the student with hearing impairment is the most significant task any teacher / resource teacher has to undertake. Two points should be understood very well here.

1.     Identifying need is the beginning of the intervention process. If that task is done systematically and specifically the process ahead has chances of success. If needs are not adequately and carefully identified further course of intervention may go wrong at the cost of educational development of the student with hearing impairment. If setting objective is considered as step 1 in providing educational intervention, listing the needs is the step zero. In math the number zero is not only an entity which comes before one but it gives value to other numbers. Similarly identification of needs will collaborate with each of the steps in intervention.

2.     Needs are of various levels and types. There is a literacy of needs. Which is….

·      Needs of student with hearing impairment because he / she is a child (health care, food, love, affection, stimulating environment etc. )

·      Needs of student with hearing impairment because he / she is a child at risk of marginalization (flexible curriculum, positive attitude, diversity friendly environment)

·      Needs of student with hearing impairment because he / she belongs to the group of children with disabilities having special needs (exemptions in examination, educational support technology etc.)

·      Needs of student with hearing impairment because he / she has hearing loss (amplification, seat on first bench, smart positive hence mate etc.)

·      UNIQUE needs of a particular student with hearing impairment since each child is unique combination impairment, technology available, family and environment.

The need based educational support is discussed in this section with special reference to levels d and e. But the a, b, c levels of needs must be fulfilled for these student with hearing impairment. Ensuring fruitful, happy, easy and time-bound education to the child involves fulfilling several needs of the student with hearing impairment. These needs are of two types: communicative needs and academic needs.

The SAALE Model: Systematic Approach for Adapting the Learning Environment given by Kate, 2003, explains 7 levels of needs and placement options.

(1) No adaptation required. (Inclusive school where environment, infrastructure and curriculum are diversity friendly)

(2) Adapted performance standards and speed. (Inclusive school where environment, infrastructure and curriculum are diversity friendly and individualized input provided as and when needed)

(3) Adapted pacing, technique and material with regular manpower (Mainstream school with resource teacher / unit)

(4) Adapted pacing, technique and material with support staff

(5) Adapted content (Mainstream school providing exemptions and concessions or non formal agencies of education)

(6) Adapted manpower (self content special class in mainstream schools)

(7) Alternative program (special school placement)

Adaptation or Modification Decision Path

A Curricular Adaptation and Decision-making Process

This decision-making flowchart can be used to conceptualize the process of selecting and implementing curricular adaptations. It should be used as a tool for a team in determining an individual student’s needs.

Examine the Structure of the Instruction

1. Can the student actively participate in the lesson without modification? Will the same essential outcome he achieved?

2. Can the student’s participation he increased by changing the instructional arrangement?

From traditional arrangements to:

        Cooperative groups

        Small groups

        Peer partners

        Peer or cross-age tutors

3. Can the student’s participation be increased by changing the lesson format?

        Interdisciplinary/thematic units

        Activity-based lessons, games, simulations, role-plays

        Group investigation or discovery learning

        Experiential lessons

        Community-referenced lessons

4, Can the Student’s participation and understanding be increased by changing the delivery of instruction or teaching style?

Examine the Demands and Evaluation Criteria of the Task

5. Will the student need adapted curricular goals?

        Adjust performance standards

        Adjust pacing

        Same content but less complex

        Similar content with functional/direct applications

        Adjust the evaluation criteria or system (grading)

        Adjust management techniques

Examine the Learning Environment

6. Can the changes he made in the classroom environment or lesson location that will facilitate participation?

        Environmental/physical arrangements

        Social rules

        Lesson location

Examine the Materials for Learning

7. Will different materials be needed to ensure participation?

        Same content but variation in size, number, format

        Additional or different materials/devices

        Materials that allow a different mode of input

        Materials that allow a different mode of output

        Materials that reduce the level of abstraction of information

Examine the Support Structure

8. Will personal assistance be needed to ensure participation?

        From peers or the general education instructor?

        From the support facilitator’?

        From therapists’?

        From paraprofessionals?

        From others?

Arrange Alternative Activities that Foster Participation and Interaction

9. Will a different activity need to be designed and offered for the student and a small group of peers?

        In the classroom

        ln other general education environments

        In community-based environments

It is important to correlate adaptations with the IEP. In other words, we are not adapting for adaptations sake but, to meet the student’s needs as identified on an IEP.

When To Use Modifications

The decision to use modifications should be based on the same principle as adaptations—that all students must have equitable access to learning, opportunities for achievement, and the pursuit of excellence in all aspects of their educational programs.  Before modifying the outcomes for a student, schools should review all instructional interventions tried and consider assessment information, utilizing a process that is ongoing and consultative—similar to IEP development practices overall.   

Modifications should be considered for those students whose special needs are such that they are unable to access the curriculum (i.e., students with limited awareness of their surroundings, students with fragile mental/physical health, students medically and cognitively/multiply challenged.)  Using the strategy of modifications for students not identified as special needs should be a rare practice.  

In many cases, modifications need only form part of an educational program for a student with special needs, and they need not be a permanent or long term solution. Whether to use modifications should be reviewed on a regular basis.  Decisions about modifications should be subject or course specific wherever possible. For example, a student with an intellectual disability may require modifications to a specific subject area such as mathematics; however, modifications may not be required to meet the provincial outcomes in physical education.  


4.3. Adapting Curriculum- Content, Teaching-learning Material, and Instruction


First of all, it is necessary for teachers to understand each student’s learning style and provide support to encourage him to learn. Each student with hearing impairment is unique in his / her communicative needs. Though all student with hearing impairment (SWHI) have hearing loss in common, all of them have different degrees and types of hearing losses. Few of them benefit from hearing aids and some need additional support like speech reading and visual information. Some of them may be responding quickly but unable to make proper utterances because their speech is inadequate or their language and vocabulary are insufficient (communicative difficulties) to express themselves. Their communication also gets affected by group size and other children who express vocally. It requires different methodologies for learning purpose without making any substantial changes in the subject area. A good teacher can teach all children effectively irrespective of their disabilities.

Differentiating curriculum content

The Guidelines for Inclusive Teaching and Learning (Department of Education 2010:10) explore the two key curriculum processes of curriculum adaptation and curriculum differentiation. Adaptation is presented as a strategy for ensuring effective curriculum delivery to all learners, particularly learners with disabilities. Differentiation is presented as a key strategy to cater for the different levels of ability, and to mitigate the effects of various barriers to learning. Adaptation refers broadly to modification and/or adjustment of lessons, activities and materials to make them suitable for different learner needs.

Differentiation, on the other hand, assumes that learners may vary in their cognitive abilities. It is the responsibility of educators in inclusive schools to plan lessons in such a way that they range from the most basic level to the most complex level. All learners are exposed to the same concept. The content may be presented in a multimedia format to enable learners with different “intelligences” to access it. Learners are given different options in presenting their work, so that every learner is assessed in terms of his or her strengths. At the level of the lesson plan, for example, differentiation implies adjusting tasks to appeal to the various interests, needs, aptitudes, experiences and previous achievements of individual learners.

The content of a curriculum includes what educators teach and what the learners are expected to learn, that is, to know, understand or be able to do. It includes facts, concepts, and skills that learners will acquire within their learning environment. Sometimes educators are able to select the content to suit the learners’ needs. Sometimes it is the authority of the school that prescribes the content of the curriculum; sometimes it is a combination of educator and authority.

Educators can differentiate the content at the following levels:

· Abstractness. A curriculum includes many facts, definitions, descriptions, patterns, relationships, key concepts and generalisations. Example: Depending on learners’ levels of functioning, they might access the content at a concrete or abstract level; certain learners might need to work with objects, such as small stones as counters before they are ready to work with abstract numbers. It is the responsibility of educators to ensure that the content is adapted at the level of the individual learner.

· Complexity. Many aspects of the curriculum can be very complex and difficult to understand for some learners; for example, understanding the different characters in a story is a more complex task than just relating the plot of the story. Educators need to contextualise topics rather than use facts in isolation.

· Variety: To cater for learners’ levels of functioning and their interests the curriculum needs to be expanded; for example, learners who have excellent reading skills might be given new and varied material to stop them from getting bored.

Although the learning needs of children with HI may differ in terms of severity of problem and the quantity, quality and timing of the support services the children receive, the following are some common needs these children exhibit across various subjects.

• Development/Acquisition of Speech and Language vocabulary, syntax and figurative language (like similes, metaphors and idioms);

• Understanding of abstract concepts;

• Reading and spellings (because of difficulty in phonemic awareness and speech sound discrimination);

• Communication Skills (speaking and listening, understanding);

• Mathematics;

• Organising ideas and;

• Communicating ideas.

Based on the above some exemplary strategies of curricular adaptation based on NCERT primary stage books of different subjects are given below:


1. Concepts can be associated with visual vocabulary. For example, to explain the word direction, picture of an arrow can be shown.

2. Concepts can be taught through activities: For example, a child is given the pictures of a rabbit and a tree. He/she can be asked to paste the picture of the rabbit on/behind/under/beside the tree.

3. Visual vocabulary sheet (displaying words with pictures) on the topic taught can be prepared.

4. Use multiple modes of communication (verbal and non-verbal cues) like gestures, signing, lip/speech reading, facial expression, graphics, cartoons (speech balloons), pictures, symbols, concrete objects and examples to assist in comprehension.


1. Concept of time duration can be taught with simple activities. For example, observing the time taken by two peers during meal time and then assessing who had taken longer time to finish the food.

2. Two digit additions without carry over or with carryover can be demonstrated using simple objects like sticks or beads.

3. Word problems can be understood through real life examples/ situations or pictures.


1. Concept of clouds can be communicated through multimedia and real life experience. For example, show charts with a cloudy sky or relate to outside sky. They should understand that the clouds are above us in the sky.

2. Properties of water can be taught through simple activities like taking a glass of water and dropping stones, leaves, salt, paper etc. into it.

3. Concept of evaporation can be communicated through observations and discussions. For example, the phenomena of drying of clothes, boiling of water, etc.

4. Knowledge of sounds can be developed with the help of recorded sounds of birds and animals which can be played on DVD player/ tape recorder on high volume first, gradually reducing the volume. While doing this, there is a need for flexibility and relaxation with reference to the student’s response. Rigidity is completely ruled out as some children with HI may not hear certain sounds initially. With practice they may be able to identify and discriminate.

5. Organise group work involving activities like cut and paste, and make use of pictorial displays, models, pictures, posters, flash cards or any visual items to illustrate facts/concepts.


Adapting instructional materials

The process of adapting instructional strategies provides for additional, or simply different, materials, in a variety of modalities that the learners might use during the course of instruction. Most material adaptations fall into one of four groups:

·      Adjusting the readability level of written materials;

·      Enhancing critical features of the content within the materials themselves;

·      Designing materials with features that appeal to sensory modalities other than visual or auditory modalities;

·      Selecting alternate instructional materials for their durability or safety features

Adapting instructional materials involves making changes to the equipment and/or supplies to which learners have access during the course of instruction. This involves a change in the formats through which information is represented to the learner or the learner's engagement with the curriculum during the course of instruction.

Adapting instructional materials includes strategies such as adapting and modifying existing print material, for example by re-writing it in a simpler form, or by creating new supplementary materials at a simpler level around the same theme or topic. Naturally, this is a demanding and time-consuming process for educators, although it is frequently recommended as best practice in professional literature on differentiation.

Text books can be adapted by modifying:

·      Language complexity (using simple sentences / short sentences / adding examples);

·      Organization of the content (adding bullet points, summarized points, numbered points. Underlines and high lighters etc);

·      Visual support with illustrative explanations;

·      Lesson end exercises


Adapting instructional strategies

Adapting instructional strategies is a method that allows educators to meet the needs of all learners according to their strengths, ability levels, and needs, without separating learners homogeneously (according to their ability levels). Educators are able to create lesson plans based on educational objectives for the entire class, while modifying the delivery, product, or assessment for classroom learners. By providing instruction in this situation, learners recognise that they are all learning the same material; however, it is presented in the way that meets their unique needs.

Adapting instructional strategies also involves the method of instruction, how learners are grouped, the nature of their participation in the lesson, and the interactions between educators and learners, and among the learners themselves.

Teachers can make the teaching learning process effective by adapting simple strategies. They include:

(1) Breaking the learning task into teachable sub-components:

A lesson may contain different kinds of information. Teacher can break the lesson into teachable units and teach them sequentially. In the same way, a task may require several skills or many different kinds of information. After identifying them, they can be broken into smaller tasks along with the prerequisites for learning the task. The instruction should begin with necessary pre-requisite skills or information.

(2) Using examples:

It is difficult for the student to imagine something unrelated to the physical and psychological context of the classroom. Learning becomes easier when the new information is connected with known things. Giving examples, from immediate environment or past experience enhances understanding. While giving examples, use pictures/real objects or write the word on the board. In this way teachers can provide opportunities for concrete learning. While following the teachers, most of the time children with hearing impairment speech-read the teachers. But children cannot always speech-read or cannot always understand every information by speech-reading. Even if they do so, only one third of the speech sounds are visible. It is tiresome and very difficult to speech-read beyond 10 feet.

(3) Activity-oriented approach:

In activity-oriented approach textbook reading and vocabulary demands are reduced and student-centered exploration are emphasized. Activities could be designed to provide the students with an integrated understanding of the lesson. Lesson can be introduced and taught through play activities. In this method, children learn through discovery and active participation is ensured.

(4) Arranging field trips / visits:

Field trips provide hands on experience which contribute to proper concept development. Relying on reading and speech reading in the class may tire students and information and knowledge may not be received at the optimum level. Field trips and visits arranged with well-defined learning objectives can many times overcome the loss of learning experiences which are forced by the absence of the senses. At the same time the learning of the students should not be completely dependent on the first hand experience. They should be empowered to comprehend things which they have never experienced. Moreover, if these visits are not well supported by the language learning experience then it is of less use.

(5) Use of teaching aids:

Several concepts taught in the class may not be understood easily by the SWHI since they cannot hear the complete lecture in the class. Therefore, it is essential to use additional teaching aids, which may provide the needed support in learning and concept development. Overhead projectors (OHP) can be used effectively. Teachers can write material that can be seen by all students while the teacher is facing the class. Preparing additional teaching aids should not be considered as a burden. In fact, these teaching aids enable even the nondisabled students to have enriching learning experience.

(6) Peer group activities:

Working in small groups or pairing students for a particular task generally works well with any child with disability. In these instances, teacher must develop strategies that allow students with hearing impairment to be a contributing member in the group. These students accept peers to great extent despite their weaknesses. At the same time, non-disabled classmates contribute significantly to the educational experiences of student with HI.

(7) Summing up at the end of class:

Start the class with outline of the lesson or present the critical information of the lesson. End the lesson by summing up the content with key points or flow charts and connect to future learning. Recapitulation is the biggest aid in learning. If your summary is in written form, it will go a long way in helping the student learn the concepts better.

In order to respond to the needs of deaf learners in the class, educators should make the following adaptations to the physical classroom environment:

·      Place the learner near the front of the class to minimise distractions; educators may consider placing desks in a circle or horseshoe formation.

·      Stand where the student can lip-read.

·      Face the student when talking.

·      Eliminate or reduce background noise with carpeting, draperies, acoustic ceiling tiles, and acoustic wall treatments.

·      Position deaf learners strategically in relation to the educator, or another learner who is speaking.

·      Ensure that the position and source of light are suitable for deaf learner.

·      Minimise visual distractions (visual pollution) such as classes that are too full.

·      Incorporate assistance by a person or by using a technological device (e.g. hearing aid and FM system)


4.4. Types of Adaptation and Process


Adaptations, accommodations, and modifications may seem like interchangeable terms, but when it comes to inclusion they carry significantly different meanings.


Nine Types Of Adaptations

1.     SIZE/QUANTITY - Adapt the number of items that the student is expected to learn or complete. (modification)

2.     TIME - Adapt the time allotted and allowed for learning, task completion, or testing. (accommodation)

3.     LEVEL OF SUPPORT - Increase the amount of personal assistance with a specific student. (accommodation)

4.     INPUT - Adapt the way instruction is delivered to the student (differentiated instruction). (accommodation)

5.     DIFFICULTY - Adapt the skills level, problem type, or the rules about how the student may approach the work. (modification)

6.     OUTPUT - Adapt how the student can respond to instruction. (accommodation)

7.     PARTICIPATION LEVEL - Adapt the extent to which a learner is actively involved in the task. (accommodation)

8.     ALTERNATE GOALS - Adapt the goals/expectations while using the same materials. (modification)

9.     PARALLEL/ALTERNATIVE CURRICULUM - Provide different instruction/materials and alternate activities to meet a student’s individual outcomes. (modification)

10.SETTING- change in the setting or surrounding of the student. (accommodation)




4.5. Adaptation and Accommodations in Student’s Evaluation and Examinations


Adapting assessment practices

The final category of curricular adaptations refers to alterations in the way in which educators receive information from learners in the classroom. These involve a change in the learner's instructional output (Bashinski 2002:1). Within a differentiated curriculum, assessment of learners and their learning is integral to the teaching and learning process. As with differentiated instruction, differentiated assessment is based on the thinking that the needs of learners cannot all be met in the same way.

Differentiated assessment will enable learners of various abilities and with varied experience to best demonstrate what they know. As the educator gets to know the learner, and as learner differences emerge, assessment needs to become more differentiated. The goal is to meet learners where they are and to help them progress to the next step in their learning. Thus, it is a cyclical process: assessment and instruction support and inform each other.

Offering learners the opportunity to respond to instruction in a non-traditional manner, in some way(s) other than through typical oral recitation or written expression, is also encompassed in the curriculum adaptations category. Alternative learner responses might include: collage, sculpture, pantomime, dramatic portrayal, musical composition, motoric demonstration, photographic presentation, or graphics display.

Three key types of alternate assessment that can be used to assess learners experiencing barriers to learning:

·      Alternate assessments based on alternate attainment of knowledge (content, concepts and skills) for learners with a significant cognitive disability. These assessments are based on the grade-level content covered by the general assessment, but at reduced depth, breadth, and complexity. These assessments describe achievement based on what is determined as a high expectation for these learners. Target learners can include learners with intellectual disabilities, some of whom are currently enrolled in special schools or schools of skill.

·      Alternate assessment based on modified attainment of knowledge (content, concepts and skills) for learners with disabilities who are working on grade-level content that is covered in the general assessment. However, because of their disability, they may require more time to master the content. These assessments measure a learner's mastery of grade-level content with reduced load or at a more functional level. Target learners can include learners with moderate intellectual disability, learners who are deaf, some learners on skill programmers and so on.

·      Alternate assessments based on grade-level attainment of knowledge (content, concepts and skills)for learners with disabilities or learning difficulties that need testing formats or procedures that provide them with equal opportunities to demonstrate their attainment of content which is at the same grade-level as the general assessment. Target learners can include learners who are blind, have communication difficulties, physical disabilities, learners who are dyslexic or with hearing loss and who need additional time, alternate formats, readers, amanuensis, electronic equipment and so on.

Some procedures that educators can follow when adapting assessment for HI learners. These include:

·      Design assessment tasks which will allow for different learning styles or intelligences;

·      Allow for group assessment tasks;

·      Pace or scaffold the assessment activities;

·      Allow for tests and assignments to be taken orally as well as in written form;

·      Modify the vocabulary used in test items to match the learner’s abilities;

·      Use projects or portfolios in lieu of tests;

·      Provide graphic cues (e.g., arrows, stop signs) on answer form;

·      Give alternative forms of the same test;

·      Provide tasks which require short answers from HI learners;

·      Teach test-taking skills;

·      Allow HI learners extra time to complete tasks;

·      Use technological aids or make other special arrangements to undertake assessment tasks;

·      Keep a record of materials and assessment tasks used;

·      Keep educators’ observation books for learners who need additional support;

·      Focus only on key concepts for HI learners;

·      Focus on the positive aspects or talents of HI learners;

·      Vary assessment activities;

·      Exclude some marks collected early in the semester for a learner who performed poorly at the beginning of the year but subsequently made good progress;

·      Allow learners to make models, role-play, develop skills, and create art projects to demonstrate their understanding of the information;

·      Allow written or drawn responses to serve as alternatives to oral presentations;

·      Allow learners to use computers or word-processors.

Recent developments in the field of education have made many teachers anxious about including CWSN in classrooms. Some teachers lack the confidence to teach these children effectively while simultaneously teaching a large group of typically developing students. In an attempt to meet such challenges, documents on curricular adaptations are being prepared all over the country. This may be prompted by the mistaken belief that a document on curricular adaptations would serve as a magic wand and help our teachers meet the demands of inclusive classrooms. While it is true that curricular adaptations could be one strategy to increase participation of students with disabilities in the learning process, it must be borne in mind that no two individuals with special needs have identical needs even in case of similar disability. Considering the individual differences that exist in our classrooms, any document on curricular adaptations can only be an exemplar material that calls for teachers to reflect on their own strengths and shortcomings. This way, they can identify successful strategies and their experiences would guide the daily working of their classrooms.