Unit 5: Educational Intervention Strategies
5.1 Educational Intervention: Concept, Need & Areas (curricular & co curricular) & Types of educational intervention (group, individual, developmental, remedial)
5.2 Principles and practices in early educational intervention: Family centred, contextualised (natural & inclusive environment) & integrated (collaborative) support and services
5.3 Maxims, Methods of teaching & Lesson planning (group, individual, developmental, and remedial)
5.4 Partnership of various professionals & agencies in educational intervention
5.5 Child & Family Outcomes of Early Educational Intervention
5.1 Educational Intervention: Concept, Need & Areas (curricular & co curricular) & Types of educational intervention (group, individual, developmental, remedial)
In the earlier times children with hearing impairment were generally segregated due to their special needs. In this way the intervention is shelter, food and minimal vocational of the children with hearing impairment. The world is constantly changing and development has touched in every human life. So in this way rehabilitative process are not only shelter, food and minimal vocational training but also new philosophy, approaches, methods, practice, educational aids and appliances for the student with hearing impairment have come up. Education is a single potent tool to address present challenges if results in Learning to know, learning to do, learning to be and Learning to live together & learning to transform oneself & Society. In this sense, children with hearing impairment promote to learning performance in education system. That why educational intervention is the most important part for hearing impaired children.
Educational interventions provide students with the support needed to acquire the skills being taught by the educational system and should address functional skills, academic, cognitive, behavioral, and social skills that directly affect the child’s ability access an education.
In general terms, classroom intervention is a set of steps a teacher takes to help a child improve in their area of need by removing educational barriers. There are four key components of classroom intervention:
1. Proactive: Deals with areas of need before they become a larger obstacle to education.
2. Intentional: Specifically addresses an observed weakness.
3. Formal: Uses targeted methods for addressing specific needs and tracks progress.
4. Flexible: Adjusts methods based upon the needs of the student.
In the classroom, teachers may observe and identify problems with a student’s behavior or academic performance. Sometimes, the same child needs improvement in both areas. Although often connected, these issues are addressed using different types of interventions.
No single treatment or intervention is the answer for every child or family. Good intervention plans will include close monitoring, follow-ups and any changes needed along the way. There are many different options for children with hearing loss and their families.
Some of the treatment and intervention options include:
Classroom interventions are an important part of a teacher's toolkit. After assessing students and identifying their areas of need, teachers take action to address those areas of need. Educators have long been aware that not all children learn in the same way, which is the reason for differentiated instruction. Differentiated instruction is teaching the same content in different ways to address the needs of different learners, such as visual learners, auditory learners, or kinesthetic learners.
For some students, differentiated instruction is not enough. Students that struggle may include those who have
Classroom interventions, whether behavioral or academic, are designed to support students before the student begins to fail. Giving students needed help before they experience significant levels of failure can increase student motivation as well as improve academic performance. Schools need to have a systematic approach to identifying struggling students and providing interventions.
Basically speaking activities encompassing the prescribed courses of study are called curricular or academic activities. In simple words it can be said that activities that are undertaken inside the classroom, in the laboratory, workshop or in library are called “curricular activities.” These activities are an integral part of the over-all instructional programme. Because in the organisation of these activities or programmes there lies active involvement of the teaching staff of the educational institution.
As their title suggests, curricular-based interventions often take place to support learners within their classroom environment. Working with the teacher or teaching assistant, students will be selected to work through a new concept or idea in a more structured and supportive way. Classroom intervention strategies often minimise the number of students who are referred for further special education needs assessments.
Co-curricular activities, structured learning activities that complement the formal curriculum (and more often than not do not count for credit or toward graduation), are often more “core” than you might think.
Not all interventions focus on academic data. When students are experiencing trauma, or have experienced loss, they may not be willing participants in the learning process. If students need support with their mental health or general well
being, social and emotional interventions offer students a safe space in which to explore their thoughts and feelings.
Co-curricular activities are categorized in the following heads:
(i) Physical Development Activities:
These activities include games, sports, athletics, yoga, swimming, gardening, mass drill, asana, judo, driving, etc.
(ii) Academic Development Activities:
These activities include formation of clubs in relation to different subjects. Such as science club, history club, ecological club, economics club, geographical club, civic club etc. Besides this the other activities like preparation of charts, models, projects, surveys, quiz competitions etc. come under this category.
(iii) Literary Activities:
For developing literary ability of students the activities like publication of school magazine, wall magazine, bulletin board, debates, news paper reading, essay and poem writing are undertaken.
(iv) Cultural Development Activities:
The activities like drawing, painting, music, dancing, dramatics, folk song, fancy dress, variety show, community activities, exhibition, celebration of festivals, visit to cultural places having importance in local, state, national and international perspective come under this category.
(v) Social Development Activities:
For bringing social development among students through developing social values resulting in social service the following co-curricular activities are organised. Such as – NSS, girl guiding, red cross, adult education, NCC, boys scout, mass programme, social service camps, mass running, village surveys etc.
(vi) Moral Development Activities:
The co-curricular activities like organisation of extra mural lectures, social service, celebration of birth days of great-men of national and international repute, morning assembly should be organised. These activities bring moral development among individuals.
(vii) Citizenship Training Activities:
The activities like student council, student union, visits to civic institutions like the parliament, state legislatures, municipalities, formation of student self government, co-operative stores are essential for providing useful and valuable civic training.
(viii) Leisure Time Activities:
These activities are otherwise known as hobbies of different students. These include activities like coin-collecting, album making, photography, stamp collecting, gardening, candle making, binding, toy making, soap making, play modeling etc.
(ix) Emotional and National Integration Development Activities:
Under this category organisation of camps, educational tours, speech programmes, celebration of national and international days are included.
Individual Intervention/One-on-one intervention
Usually targeted at students whose progress in a core area has dipped, or children with more complex special needs needs, one-to-one interventions provide children with the opportunity to work with a teacher or teaching assistant outside of the classroom. These sessions bring great scope to accelerate progress through focused and personalised target setting. One-to-one interventions often involve two or three short sessions per week that tend to run on a termly rota.
This program is a one on one teaching by a special educator for a regular on-going basis , one or more than one times a week decided by parents. It can be academic, social, communication or prevocational depending upon child’s need.
Special education is instruction specifically designed to address the educational and related developmental needs of older children with disabilities, or those who are experiencing developmental delays. Services for these children are provided through the public school system. These services are available through the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act 2004 (IDEA 2004), Part B.
A special education program should be customized to address each individual student's unique needs. A special educator provides a continuum of services, in which students with hearing impairment receives varying degrees of support based on their individual needs. Special education programs need to be individualized so that they address the unique combination of needs in a given student. In special education educational professionals use a student's Individualized Education Programmed "The IEP is meant to address each child's unique learning issues and include specific educational goals. It is a legally binding document. The school must provide everything it promises in the IEP. So with the help of IEP students with hearing impairment are assessed to determine their specific strengths and weaknesses and teacher produce the children's placement, resources and goals. These are determined on the basis of the student's needs. Accommodations and Modifications to the regular program may include changes in the curriculum, supplementary aids or equipment, and the provision of specialized physical adaptations that allow students to participate in the educational environment as much as possible. Parent of students with hearing impairment must know what type of disability their child has, so they can get accommodations like speech therapy, auditory training etc. For example, if a student takes an academic test and it indicates that the student struggles with reading comprehension; parents can request speech and language support or classroom accommodations, such as extra time to complete reading and writing tasks.
Group interventions allow students to understand new or existing subject content through team discussion and group work. In this way, students can listen to, respond, and consider their peers’ differing thoughts in a collaborative environment.
There is a range of inclusive teaching strategies that can assist all students to learn but there are some specific strategies that are useful in teaching a group which includes students with hearing impairments. The solution to all the problem arising out of formation of various levels within a group hence is known as grouping for instruction.
The highlights of the grouping system are:
· There is no rigid class.
· All children of a same class do not remain within the same group or all subject.
· Children are grouped according to their abilities, strengths or weakness and are taught accordingly by separate teachers in separate class room.
· Type of flexibility within the group for instruction exists for most of the curricular and co- curricular lessons in the schools where grouping are practiced.
· It is an ideal way which could give an opportunity to each and every child to learn appropriately at his/her pace and as per the ability.
Developmental Education intervention must involve ongoing teamwork and discussion with parents and other service providers (therapists or special education teachers, assistants and one-to-one aids) involved in delivering in developmental education intervention services to each eligible child participating in the group and the child's family. Families must collect steady response on the child's progress, based on the needs of the child and family. In addition, families should receive feedback on how they can help their child learn and work on skills to support learning and development in the home environment. Developmental education intervention services should include the supports and resources (e.g., assistive technology, curriculum adaptations and equipment) necessary to maximize the child's opportunities to participate and learn in the group setting and services should use developmentally appropriate practices that are also responsive to cultural and language needs of the children in the group.
Remedial Education Intervention is also known as developmental education, basic skills education, compensatory education, preparatory education, and academic upgrading. It is signed to assist students in order to achieve expected competencies in core academic skills such as literacy and numeracy. Whereas special education in children with hearing impairment is designed specifically for students with hearing impairment. remedial education intervention can be designed for any students, with or without special needs; the defining trait is simply that they have reached a point of under preparedness, regardless of why.
The following are some of the most important aspects of remedial educational intervention:
· The formation of an "education team" (parents, teachers, support personnel, specialists, and management) to assist one another and the kid.
· A specialist teacher correctly diagnosing and confirming the problem with the classroom instructor.
· The program is being planned and scheduled using a backward design process. This includes establishing SMART goals, micro-goals, prizes, and strategies to recognize and celebrate accomplishments in order to increase kids' self-esteem. Parental engagement, resources, and assessment methods are all documented.
· Oral tests are used to track progress at regular intervals. The best approach is to keep track of pupil development each week and graph it. This allows teachers, students, and parents to see how their children are progressing. Students' reading scores can be collected using a weekly 3-minute reading assessment (such as total errors from a passage in a set period of time). The student's progress can then be graphed using the scores from each week.
· Parents are encouraged to participate in activities with their children at home in order to support the program (such as casual reading and writing to learn). This gives kids more time to study, more repetition (which leads to automaticity), and more contexts and model instances to reinforce their learning. They're also taught about the advantages of spaced practice and consolidation.
At times, it can be difficult to distinguish between the role of special education versus remedial education. While the two can relate to certain situations, each has its defined role in the educational landscape.
Reinforces basic skills necessary for core academic areas to support struggling students in current and future coursework in those areas.
Both types of education are designed to support students outside of the current grade-level coursework.
Provides specially designed instruction according to a student's specific needs as determined by a medical or psychological diagnosis, parents, general education teachers, and special education teachers. These needs are translated into goals written out in an Individualized Education Plan (IEP).
The goal is to help fill learning gaps for students to complete the general education coursework for their grade level.
Both are supports that can assist students in achieving academic goals to the best of their abilities.
The goal may or may not be for students to be completing the typically assigned general education coursework. Special education is provided individually, and student learning goals are reevaluated at least once per year.
Remedial education programs are designed at the discretion of the school or district providing them, causing them to look different at each school site.
There are different models for both, depending on what is deemed most effective for a particular student or group. This includes "push-in"/inclusion services or "pull-out"/replacement services.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) regulates special education and must follow specific rules and be documented consistently for legal purposes.
Remedial education is typically one of the first steps when a student has demonstrated consistent struggles in a core academic content area.
Both forms of education serve as essential points on a spectrum of academic services for students to perform at the best of their abilities.
Special education is typically the result of determining that remedial education and other intervention strategies did not improve academic outcomes. The determination often leads to further testing, medical or psychological evaluations, and input from all parties to determine eligibility for special education services.
5.2 Principles and practices in early educational intervention: Family centred, contextualised (natural & inclusive environment) & integrated (collaborative) support and services
The first three years of a child’s life play a crucial role in his or her development. By the time healthy toddlers are ready to enter preschool, they will have reached a number of developmental milestones, including being able to dress themselves, say their first name, and play make-believe. Infants and toddlers who are having trouble reaching developmental milestones can catch up to their peers with the help of early intervention, a system of support services that help children with developmental delays. Early intervention is especially important in minimizing potential developmental delays for the one in six children in the United States diagnosed with developmental disabilities.
Early intervention can enhance the development of infants and toddlers and help individuals with disabilities reach their full potential. As we explore the importance of intervention programs, consider the active role you could take to help children overcome developmental delays.
The Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) was passed with the goal of making public education and related services free and accessible to students with disabilities. The Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities Program (Part C) of IDEA was passed in 1986 to provide early intervention to infants and toddlers aged three and under. Together, IDEA and Part C govern how states and public agencies provide early intervention services to children with disabilities and their families.
Under Part C, every infant or toddler with a disability is entitled to receive an individualized family service plan (IFSP) developed by parents and a multidisciplinary team. Not to be confused with an IEP (individualized education program developed for public school children who need special education), an IFSP focuses on a child’s unique needs and how services and family members can meet those needs. An IFSP also focuses on easing a young learner’s transition to preschool. Examples of early intervention services include:
Services like these are essential for assisting children with their physical, cognitive, communication, social, emotional, and adaptive development. The special educators, social workers, and other qualified professionals who provide early intervention services all play a crucial role in helping boys and girls with special needs overcome developmental delays. If you’re interested in taking an active role in early intervention and prevention in special education, earning a master’s degree in special education is a good start.
To narrow the school readiness gap, high-quality, coordinated early childhood services are critical to foster the growth and development of infants, toddlers and preschool-age children who have disabilities or developmental delay and to build and sustain family capacity.
When services are aligned across various providers, and when educators and service providers are aware of available services, knowledgeable about evidence-based intervention strategies, competent in early childhood assessment, and skilled in working with and supporting families, then young children with disabilities will enter kindergarten ready to learn.
Early Intervention (0-3 years)
Hearing loss can affect a child’s ability to develop speech, language, and social skills. The earlier a child who is deaf or hard-of-hearing starts getting services, the more likely the child’s speech, language, and social skills will reach their full potential.
Early intervention program services help young children with hearing loss learn language skills and other important skills. Research shows that early intervention services can greatly improve a child’s development.
Babies that are diagnosed with hearing loss should begin to get intervention services as soon as possible, but no later than 6 months of age.
There are many services available through the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act 2004 (IDEA 2004). Services for children from birth through 36 months of age are called Early Intervention or Part C services. Even if your child has not been diagnosed with a hearing loss, he or she may be eligible for early intervention treatment services. The IDEA 2004 says that children under the age of 3 years (36 months) who are at risk of having developmental delays may be eligible for services. These services are provided through an early intervention system in your state. Through this system, you can ask for an evaluation.
Principles of Early educational intervention
Early childhood education is the most important part in the life. Before 5 years a child can get education through informal and non-formal ways. But many play schools introduce formal education by playway techniques. So they follow some basic principles.
· The educational goal must be child centric. A child is a main component of education. So the main objective of education is to fulfil the needs of a child.
· The age limit of the education must be below 5 years. The education of below 5 years is called early childhood education.
· The education must be activity based. A Child likes to do activities. They can learn easily through more and more activities.
· The curriculum must be friendly. A child always wants to meet with his/her friends. They like to play with themselves. So, if the curriculum is filled up with joy a child can accept it spontaneously.
· The curriculum must be flexible. The curriculum can be charged on the basis of needs, time and environment also.
· The curriculum must be developed from simple to complex. The teaching or learning should be started from simple to complex. As a result the child acquires the concept easily.
· The curriculum must have the indication from known to unknown. If the learning activities are started from familiar situation to unfamiliar situation or known experience to unknown experience the child can learn anything properly.
· The curriculum must be prepared on the basis of interests and tendencies of the children.
· The Curriculum must be made from concreate to abstract.
Family Oriented Program in Early Childhood Education
Family-oriented programming is individually planned, developmentally appropriate intervention for children with severe disabilities/delays and their families. It is designed to engage the child’s parent(s) in a process that helps them to implement the goals and objectives of the Individualized Program Plan (IPP) within the home and community environment.
Family-oriented programming is implemented under the direction of a certificated teacher. This takes place outside of centre-based programming hours, and is based on a 1:1:1 service delivery model where the child, parent and member of the learning team from the school authority are all present and involved.
Family-oriented programming is intended to enhance the child’s centre-based programming as outlined in his or her IPP. The number of family-oriented programming sessions should be included on the IPP.
Family-oriented programming is optional and whether or not it occurs and how frequently should be a decision based on need, resources and parental preference. The number, setting and structure of sessions must be determined in consultation with the parents prior to the implementation of the program. All sessions must be carefully planned and documented, as part of the child’s program.
Centre-based programming may be combined with family-oriented programming sessions to provide a comprehensive program (e.g., 475 centre-based programming hours and 10 family-oriented programming sessions). Programs of this type may be particularly effective for very young children who require extensive programming.
The following are examples of what would constitute a family-oriented programming session:
· teacher provides family-oriented programming in the child’s home for 1.5 hours
· teacher or speech-language pathologist (under the direction of the teacher) provides two 45-minute sessions to two children and their parents or alternate caregivers at the school outside of time already claimed as centre-based programming
· occupational therapist, under the direction of the teacher, provides family-oriented programming to a child and his or her parents for 1.5 hours in the child’s home
· in-home consultant models intervention with the child and explains behaviour-management strategies to daycare staff for 1.5 hours
· family liaison worker accompanies parent and child to grocery store for 1.5 hours and demonstrates strategies for incidental teaching of social and early academic skills included in the child’s IPP
· members of the child’s learning team consult with medical personnel and/or psychologists outside the centre for a minimum of 45 minutes (counts as .5 session). A school authority cannot claim more than the equivalent of one full family-oriented programming session for child-centred consultation.
Contextualised (natural & inclusive environment)
All young children tend to thrive when they’re in familiar surroundings and with the people and objects that are most dear to them. For young children with disabilities, those reassuring surroundings are an essential part of their early intervention services. Called “natural environments,” they’re where children can practice new skills and reap the full benefits of professional intervention services.
Natural environments are more than people, places, and objects. They’re an essential part of your child’s right to inclusive early childhood special education services under Part C of the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
Many parents wonder what natural environments are, how they can help their child, and what role the parent plays. Here are answers to some common questions.
A natural environment is any place your child and family live, learn, and play. It includes:
Natural environments make every moment of your child’s day an opportunity for inclusion and for developing new skills. That’s important because when children are engaged in activities and playing with objects in which they are interested, they learn best. Natural environments help your child model the behavior and skills of family and peers. They also make it more comfortable for your child and family to practice new skills to determine what does and does not work.
Inclusive early childhood intervention provides opportunities for children with disabilities to receive education with typically developing children.
Children with disabilities receiving education with typically developing children is an important aspect of inclusive early childhood intervention (IECI). Communication among the children through daily life and play activities has a positive effect. Lindsay and Rafferty et al. reported that IECI promoted the language development of preschoolers with disabilities and improved their social adaptation ability. It also enhanced typically developing children's sociability and increased the numbers of their friends.
In the context of the Developmental Systems Model of early intervention, the principle of inclusion represents all efforts to maximize the participation of children and families in typical home and community activities (Guralnick, 2001a). Although inclusion is often thought of in the context of encouraging interactions between children with and without disabilities, it is conceptualized in the broadest possible manner as a core principle in the Developmental Systems Model. The ideological and philosophical rationales for a principle that encourages full participation of all children in community life are important in their own right, but failure to translate this principle into practice within the early intervention system will likely have numerous adverse consequences on children's development, including limiting the full range of stimulation that children can experience, restricting social and educational learning opportunities, and perhaps creating low expectations for achievement.
The IECE project focused on five thematic areas, from the perspective of quality inclusive provisions:
The project paid attention to three fundamental transversal issues in quality ECE, namely:
1. The need for a holistic child-centred approach based on an appreciation of each child as a unique, capable and active co-creator of learning
2. The need for close partnership with families
3. The need to ensure quality structures and processes.
Establishing a positive relationship between parents and professionals is critical for families, even in the absence of family characteristics that would create additional risk factors. The way in which a preliminary intervention program is carried out when families enter the early intervention program, and the extent to which conscious decisions are made to promote community participation while developing a partnership with families, can clearly have a major effect both now and in the future on all aspects of inclusion.
Integrated (collaborative) support and services
If the child has high degree of hearing loss he needs support of some special techniques which are executed in special schools where special teacher facilitation the child how to apply some techniques in home. So, we can say that home and special school are not fully different unit but both are dependent to each other. The child can learn the techniques and methods properly by the assistance of special teachers and then he may practice those techniques in home with his family members. The family members can also learn the techniques from the teachers. As a result they can rectify the child when he practices. According to RTE Act (2009) the child starts to go to normal school from 5 years+ . There he meets with many friends and teachers. If the teachers of normal school have been known with such methods of communication with HI children they can develop his communication skill. The special school is not an isolated body but it can work with other associated bodies such as normal school, parents, family members and peers group etc. Thus the HI child can progress his speech. Below 5 years a child goes to Anganwadi centre. He gets chance to make friendship among the children there. The centre-in-charge should follow the techniques to interact with her learner. If she thinks that she needs adequate support of guardians she may call them and may take the help.
A word must be kept in mind that integration is possible when all of us want to provide effective assistance to the child.
A number of different agencies support families following early identification of deafness. All of the following may be involved to varying degrees, in addition to the standard support provided by general practitioners and health visitors to families in the first year of a child’s life:
■ paediatric audiologists
■ teachers of the deaf working for LEA advisory/support services for deaf children
■ educational audiologists
■ speech and language therapists
■ social workers
Health and Education are key players within the multi-agency framework of service provision for this population. While the involvement of Social Services is also important, current involvement of SSDs at local level appears to be subject to a greater degree of variation.
5.3 Maxims, Methods of teaching & Lesson planning (group, individual, developmental, and remedial)
“In just about every area of society, there is nothing more important than ethics.” Ethics, rules, values, code of conduct, etc. are feathers of the same bird. They all fall under one umbrella.
Maxims, similarly, are short statements that are considered as a general rule of conduct. The maxims of teaching are a set of statements that experienced teachers have put forward. These maxims are universal facts and are accepted throughout the globe. When a teacher understands the maxims effectively, the teaching gets more systematic and efficient.
The maxims of teaching energize both the teacher and the taught and make them active and co-operative. Maxims of teaching also help in arousing interest and motivating students. Keeping in view the importance of maxims in the teaching learning process, some of the important maxims of teaching are discussed below:-
a. Proceed from known to unknown:- The most natural and simple way of teaching a lesson is to proceed from something that the pupils already know to those facts which they do not know. Previous knowledge serves as a solid foundation in the acquisition of new knowledge. For making teaching effective and fruitful, a teacher should proceed step by step to connect new knowledge with old knowledge.
Proceed form simple to complex: –
To develop a sense of satisfaction in students, simple and easy lessons should be taught first to be followed by complex and difficult one. The word easy to difficult or complex should be viewed from child’s standpoint not from adults. In teaching, the teacher should begin with the most striking and prominent features of a topic and then proceed to the detail.
c. Proceed from easy to difficult:- Subject matter should be graded in such a way so that children can climb the ladder of subject or lesson with ease and little difficulty. This is possible if easy lessons precede the difficult ones. In determining the level of difficulty, children’s psychological set up should be taken into consideration.
d. Proceed from concrete to abstract: – Children can learn things easily when they can see and handle them. The idea of two plus two is equal to four (2+2=4) is an abstract idea. If the same things are done by allowing children to count two sticks with another two sticks, the idea of four will easily come to their mind. The process of concretization makes learning interesting and lively. A lesson of geography can be made interesting with the help of maps, charts, globes, models, pictures of mountains, river, etc.
e. Proceed from particular to general:- The particular instances are simple, definite and concrete whereas generalizations are likely to be complex and abstract. The process of learning can only become complete if children can proceed from particular and finish with the general rules or definitions. The rules of arithmetic, of grammar, of physical geography and almost of all sciences are based on this principle of proceeding from particular instances to general rules. For example- in teaching algebra, formulae should be derived from particular cases and then applied to solve more problems. So to ensure better understanding both inductive and deductive methods should be applied.
f. Proceed from indefinite to definite: – In the early stages, children’s ideas and knowledges are indefinite and vague. The objective of teaching is to make these indefinite ideas definite, clear, precise, coherent and systematic. This can be done by making children interested in lessons, developing their power of observation and encouraging them to take active part in the process of learning. Every word and idea presented to the child should be clear. For this purpose, the use of pictures, actual objects, diagrams and other devices should be frequently made.
g. Proceed from empirical to rational:- It is generally argued that first of all a child acquires knowledge from the experience of his day to day life and after that they feels the rational bases. So, understanding of rational knowledge is not possible at early stage because children cannot comprehend abstract concepts. Rational knowledge is possible only when children attain some level of mental maturity. Empirical knowledge serves at the base for mental development which in turn leads to rational knowledge.
h. Proceed from psychological to logical: – Logical approach is concerned with the arrangement of the subject matter whereas, psychological approach looks at the child’s interests, needs, mental make and reactions. But for effective teaching subject matter should be arranged in accordance with the mental development of the children. The approach should be based on children’s tendencies, interests, aptitudes, attitudes and reactions. For example- while teaching arithmetic, simple problems should come after the students have mastered counting up to ten or so. Thus, the process of teaching should proceed along psychological lines. Though the aim of education is to make mind more logical and to train the reasoning power, yet the initial approach of teaching should be psychological rather than logical.
i. Proceed from whole to part: – Whole is more meaningful to the child than the parts of the whole. Researchers have proved that the whole approach is better than the part approach. While putting emphasis on whole, one important point to be noted here is that the whole should be integrated in terms of child’s understanding. Moreover, the whole for a slow reader is smaller than the whole for a fast reader. Thus, it is essential to form meaningful whole.
j. Proceed from analysis to synthesis: – Analysis means breaking a problem into convenient parts, while synthesis means grouping of these parts into a complete whole. For example- in language study, children begin with sentences expressing simple idea. These sentences are analyzed into subject, verb and object. This process helps the child to have knowledge about the formation of sentence. But fuller understanding of the meaning of the sentence comes only when words are again arranged so as to make a sentence. Thus, analysis must be followed by synthesis otherwise analysis is fruitless.
Methods of teaching & Lesson planning
A lesson plan is the instructor’s road map of what students need to learn and how it will be done effectively during the class time. Then, you can design appropriate learning activities and develop strategies to obtain feedback on student learning. Having a carefully constructed lesson plan, allows you to enter the classroom with more confidence and maximizes your chance of having a meaningful learning experience with your students.
A successful lesson plan addresses and integrates three key components:
A lesson plan provides you with a general outline of your teaching goals, learning objectives, and means to accomplish them, and is by no means exhaustive. A productive lesson is not one in which everything goes exactly as planned, but one in which both students and instructor learn from each other.
Lesson planning is the process of planning the chapters, teaching strategies, activities, etc that are going to be covered in a particular classroom at a given point in time. Through lesson planning, teachers would determine the learning objectives of a particular lesson or subject. Teachers prepare lesson plans on a regular basis, it could be once a week or once a month. When teachers plan the activities, assignments and assessment methodologies that are necessary for a unit/subject, it will improve the performance of students. A good lesson plan increases the likelihood that your students will both enjoy and learn from the lesson.
as the most conventional approach, the teacher-centered methodology is based on
the idea that the teacher has the main responsibility in the learning
environment. Teachers are in charge of the classroom and direct all activities.
Typically, in this approach, students are seated at individual desks that face the
teacher. While group work may take place, most classroom time is spent with the
teacher explaining concepts and assigning individual work. In other words,
students passively absorb the information while the teacher actively delivers
· It highlights the importance of the teacher’s role as facilitator. Although the teacher-centered approach has been criticized for encouraging passive learning, no one can deny that students need the assistance of a teacher to develop their skills.
· Having been built on
behavioral theory, this teaching method facilitates control over changes in
student behavior through direct instruction. It might be helpful to use the
core of this approach and modify it depending on the teacher’s and students’
needs, gradually shifting the focus from the former to the latter.
· Critics cite lack of stimulation student motivation. Indeed, the teacher-centered method, used blindly, may not allow students enough freedom of mind and creativity.
· It is poor at promoting analytical thinking and problem solving skills. Not having enough opportunities for students to make their own choices may result in lack of decision making skills and even inability to think critically.
Small group instruction (SGI) usually follows whole group instruction and provides students with a reduced student-teacher ratio, typically in groups of four to six students. SGI allows teachers to work more closely with each student on a specific learning objective, reinforce skills learned in whole group instruction, and check for student understanding. This teaching method is based on constant activities around workstations: groups working with the teacher and groups working independently on varied activities, such as using manipulatives or computer/online resources.
· Lessons are adapted to each student’s level. This allows teachers to provide targeted, differentiated instruction to small groups of students in a natural way. It helps the instructor to more closely evaluate what each student is capable of and construct strategic plans around the assessments.
· It promotes students’ social adaptation skills. Students who find it difficult to ask questions and participate in a large group setting may benefit from working in a small group setting, where they feel more at ease and less overwhelmed.
· It takes more time and effort to prepare materials and organize workstations for each student group. Teachers need to think through each type of activity that will be provided at workstations: they should be equally engaging and effective.
· Students might feel pressure to always be involved, always contributing to lessons, and always taking some kind of role in group work.
As we consider shifting the focus from teacher to students, the rest of the approaches from this list are considered to be student-centered or constructivist. With the development of the educational sphere and society in general, the idea of a student-centered approach has become more popular, and there are good reasons for that. Student-centered classrooms include students in planning, implementation, and assessments. Involving the learners in these decisions places more responsibility and ownership on them rather than on the teacher. Also, teachers must become comfortable with changing their leadership style from directive to consultative. Meanwhile, students may work in small groups, access centers, and move about the classroom freely.
· Students play a more active role in their learning and develop a sense of responsibility.
· Thanks to teachers avoiding transmission of knowledge directly, students have a chance to stimulate their analytical thinking, by “making sense of what they are learning by relating it to prior knowledge and by discussing it with others,” according to American educational psychologist J. Brophy.
· There is a risk of facing some behavioral problems by giving students independence, especially when it comes to young children. To avoid such problems, teachers must lay a groundwork by creating a model of correct behavior: having the freedom to do what you want means being ready to take responsibility for the process and the results.
· This method works best when the instructor makes the lesson interesting. Without this, students may get bored, their minds may wander, and they may miss key information.
A relatively new teaching method,
project-based learning falls within the student-centered approach. As the name
suggests, in project-based learning students complete projects. However, these
are big, meaty projects in which students acquire knowledge, research, think
critically, evaluate, analyze, make decisions, collaborate, and more.
are created in response to an open-ended question such as “How can our school
be greener?” or “How was our city planned in the past and how could it be
planned in the future?” Another important part of the projects is that they
relate to real-world problems. The projects shouldn’t just apply to the
classroom but have an impact, too. For example, students might make a radio
show for the whole school to hear. Or, they might write a letter to the town
council and attend a meeting to express an opinion.
· Between projects, the teacher may provide scaffolding and smaller bite-sized projects to help build skills such as how to research, how to solve division problems, how to write a letter, etc. Thus, students build on what they know by asking questions, investigating, interacting with others, and reflecting on these experiences.
is enhanced by letting students organize their work in groups.
· It’s quite time consuming and requires good classroom management skills (from equipment availability to organizing and controlling the usage of it).
· Students without experience in group work may have difficulties adapting roles and negotiating compromise.
This type of teaching is based on a methodology
that’s over 100 years old. Yet, it continues to offer a novel approach to
creating a student-centered classroom.
Today, the Montessori method is most
popular in preschools, kindergartens, and lower elementary grades. In this
method, the teacher prepares an ideal classroom environment full of activities
that children may pick from to work on. Moreover, the teacher guides the
children to ensure that they choose an adequate number of lessons from all of
the subject areas.
The Montessori method also encourages the
use of “materials” or carefully curated objects designed for learning. For
example, there are trays containing different types of triangles or cards with
definitions explaining the parts of a bird. Furthermore, the Montessori method
includes areas of the curriculum that teach social skills and practical life
skills, such as cooking and cleaning.
· Strong intrinsic motivation and a strong sense of responsibility are important qualities that the Montessori method strives to instill in students. Children often work independently and have their choice of what to work on and where to work in the classroom.
It creates a positive
learning environment. The multi-age learning environment is unique and a key
factor to this educational method. Younger children have a great opportunity to
develop their social, communication, leadership, and emotional skills by
working with older children. Older children also benefit from this approach.
· It can be expensive. For Montessori schools, it is very hard to keep their prices low.
· Some teachers and students may find it difficult to get used to the looseness of the curriculum compared to familiar methods of teaching. It’s important to keep that in mind before deciding to incorporate some ideas of Montessori or even implement it into teaching.
What if learning was question-driven? This is exactly what inquiry -based learning is about: it engages students by making real-world connections through exploration and high-level questioning.
· Teachers guide students to develop critical thinking and problem solving skills. To learn these skills, the teacher helps students think through their processes, teaches them possible approaches, and encourages them to
encouraged to fail as a part of the process and then improve their performance
in subsequent activities.
Instead of repeating
answers students have been taught, students learn to seek their own answers to
questions. So, students develop strong research skills.
· Because students are always encouraged to speak up, participate, and not be afraid to fail, there is always a risk of embarrassing students who may not be quick thinkers (or who suffer from learning disabilities and processing issues). This leads to a higher level of anxiety and loss of
· It may result in poorer standardized testing performance. When too much time is dedicated to student inquiries, there’s always the risk that important “core” topics could be left out. Naturally, this hurts standardized testing performance.
Group Lesson Planning
Group lesson planning instruction is about learning together: teachers and students at the same time, in the same space, and with each person focused on the same learning goals. As a result, whole class instruction, implemented artfully, can bring a greater sense of community to the classroom.
Individual Lesson Planning
When we are modifying the teaching plan for an individual, the teacher should prepare for individual lesson plan. Now question is what is individualized education programme (IEP)?
An IEP defines the individualized objectives of a child who has been determined to have a disability, as defined by federal regulations. The IEP is intended to help children reach educational goals more easily than they otherwise would. In all cases the IEP must be tailored to the individual student's needs as identified by the IEP evaluation process, and must especially help teachers and related service providers (such as paraprofessional educators) understand the student's disability and how the disability affects the learning process.
The IEP describes how the student learns, how the student best demonstrates that learning and what teachers and service providers will do to help the student learn more effectively. Developing an IEP requires assessing students in all areas related to the known disabilities, simultaneously considering ability to access the general curriculum, considering how the disability affects the student's learning, forming goals and objectives that correspond to the needs of the student, and choosing a placement in the least restrictive environment possible for the student.
Special education allows a child to have an individual education plan (IEP) when the child's disability interferes with the student's education and performance. Special Education is available for all children that qualify from age 3 through age 21 or upon graduation from high school, whichever comes first. If a parent feels their child requires special education, the first step is to contact the school the child is attending and explain what how you feel your child's disability will affect education.
Development Lesson Planning
The development lesson is type of something to be learned in which a new idea is presented and developed. It may be a concept, a principle, a theory, a skill or a generalization. The distinguishing characteristic of the development lesson is the novel idea which the class has not known yet and the interest and enthusiasm of the learners.
There are two types of development lesson - the formal and informal. The formal development lesson utilizes deductive and inductive methods; while the informal development lesson does not use any particular method with definite steps. It usually uses the question and answer method or the conversational approach. The development method follows a certain procedure where the learners undergo the prescribed learning steps and processes in order to arrive in some insight and understanding, analysis, interpretation and generalization. It may also be noted that many lessons in the primary grades are of informal development type.
There are certain strengths observed in the use of development lesson. The rule or principle that is taught is better understood and mastered because meanings are directly experienced. Learning is facilitated because the lesson follow steps and sequence and satisfaction are evidently felt by the learners because they do the learning activities independently.
On the other hand, the development lesson has some weaknesses. When a rule or principle is easily understood through reading, it is a waste of time to utilize this method. In as much as this method is under the direction and control of the teacher, the learners may become dependent on the teacher. Besides, this method is not effective in some subjects.
Remedial Lesson Planning
Each pupil is different in terms of learning ability. academic standards. classroom learning and academic performance, and each has his own in learning. By adapting school curricula and teaching strategies. teachers can provide learning activities and practical experiences to students according to their abilities and needs. They can also design individualized educational programmes with intensive remedial support to help pupils consolidate their basic knowledge in different subjects, master the learning methods, strengthen their confidence and enhance the effectiveness of learning.
5.4 Partnership of various professionals & agencies in educational intervention
In order to achieve the best outcomes for all children and young people, schools must work in partnership with students, parents, other professionals and the wider community. In this changing landscape of education, the notion of the traditional school no longer exists. Partnership Working to Support Special Educational Needs & Disabilities looks at what is possible in this exciting new world, and how some teachers are putting nto practice the best principles of multi-agency working. Supporting children and young people with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) in this context is more vital than ever, as more children are being diagnosed with additional needs, and those working with children are aware of the need to ensure every individual is given the maximum opportunity to develop to their full potential.
In this connection various partnership and agencies is there for their better life:
As an educator, you may find that it is not as important to classify families by stages of adjustment to the child's disability as it is to understand that families have varied reactions and may work through their feelings in a different way and pace. It is helpful to realize that you and the family may not be operating at the same level or stage of understanding about the child rather than to make comments like "That family is so demanding" or "If the dad would get over his anger, we would be able to work together better" (Ulrich & Bauer 2003, 20). Listening to families is key in working with them as partners in supporting the learning and development of their child with special needs. Unless you have a child with a disability, you cannot fully understand the experience. As you get to know the child and family, it is also important to learn about and participate in the development of the child's Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) or Individualized Education Program (IEP).
5.5 Child & Family Outcomes of Early Educational Intervention
Education intervention is a support and educational system for very young children (aged birth to six years) who have been victims of or who are at high risk for child abuse and/or neglected as well as children who have developmental delays or disabilities. Some states and regions have chosen to focus these services on children with developmental disabilities or delays but Education Intervention is not limited to children with these disabilities. The mission of Childhood Education Interventionespecially in education is to assure that families who have at-risk children in this age range receive resources and supports that assist them in maximizing their child's physical, cognitive, and social/emotional development while respecting the diversity of families and communities. Education Intervention services for children with hearing impairment yields to a better quality of life in the family. This is due to the reason that Education Intervention services to Children with hearing impairment shows a positive impact across developmental domains, including language communication, cognitive development and social/emotional development. The first few years of a child's life are a particularly sensitive period in the process of development, laying a foundation in childhood and beyond for cognitive functioningbehavioural, social, and self-regulatory capacities and physical health. Yet many children face various stressors during these years that can impair their healthy development. That is why childhood education intervention programs provide supports for the parents, the children, or the family as a whole. These supports may be in the form of learning activities or other structured experiences that affect a child directly or that have indirect effects through training parents or otherwise enhancing the care giving environment.
Types of Educational Intervention programs in hearing impaired child:
Auditory-verbal: Focuses on the use of even minimal amounts of amplified hearing to develop spontaneous speech and to process language in a natural way through auditory pathways. These programs aim to enable children with hearing impairment to learn to listen, understand spoken language and communicate through speech using their residual hearing, and in the oral-aural approach, using lip-reading as well. These programs usually place the parent in the role of primary educator.
Total Communication: Focuses on the use of a wide range of methods of communication including speech, lip-reading, listening, signing and finger spelling. These various methods of communication may be used alone or in combination with each other. When speech and signing are used together this is known as simultaneous communication. Simultaneous communication is used to manually represent English using a sign system known as signed English.
Bilingual/Bicultural: Focuses on education through two languages. Mother tongue and second language. English is taught as a second language via reading and writing or through sign systems representing English, and speech. In many educational programs and school settings, children who are deaf or hearing impaired may learn about the deaf community and its history, language and culture, as well as learning about the hearing community.
Child Outcomes of Educational Intervention:
When a child's hearing loss is identified soon after birth, families and professionals can make sure the child gets intervention services at an early age. Here, the term intervention services include any programme, service, help or information given to families whose children have a hearing loss. Such intervention services will help children with hearing loss to develop communication and language skills. There are many types of intervention services to consider. We will talk about early Education intervention. So early education intervention services choices mean about education and including learning to communicate with each other. Early education intervention programme will be assigned by a service coordinator to help you understand the intervention system and make sure that your child gets the services to which he or she is entitled.
If proper Early Education Intervention is done, child should develop many of the factor the factors mention below:
Language and speech- With the help of Early Education Intervention child can ability to learn language and speech is the highest development of children with hearing impaired.
Intellectual ability- Process of thinking of deaf children and normal peers are found to be similar in cognitive abilities and develop verbal intelligence. So Early Education Intervention service is the most important factor of children with hearing impairment.
Academic Performance- Hearing impaired children are frequently handicapped in various degree of hearing loss and it affects educational performance and particularly reading which relies heavily upon language skill. So Early Education Intervention service is the most important factor of children with hearing impairment.
Social Adjustment- Our social inter action depends upon communications. So deaf children have communication problems. That is why they should have a problem of social inter action. Such children live in a world of isolation and form a group of their own, an association of the deaf for their common interest and interaction. So Early Education Intervention service is most important factor of children with hearing impairment that should help scholastic achievement of the children with hearing loss and that can help to develop on adjustment of their social inter-action.
Behavioural problem- Deaf learners feel invariably inferior and helpless in adapting to circumstances that require verbal communication. So non-verbal communication is regarded absence of verbal. They have poor self-concept which damages the development of personality but with the help of Early Education Intervention service children with hearing impairment studying in mainstream education develop personality and the problem behavior is reduced regarding various social academic aspect.
Socially handicapped - Learners with hearing loss cannot adjust with society because they suffer from communication difficulty and fail to understand what others hearing people say. But with the help of Early Education Intervention service they develop communication skill and mixing the oral social. Thereby reducing social handicapped ness.
Problem in personal and social development- Language becomes a barrier for deaf learner for the purpose of communication with others. So this affects the socialization process and plays a vital role in the personal and social development of hearing loss learner. So with the help of Early Education Intervention they can be mainstreamed in regular class room it develops the normal peer acceptance and reduces the problem in personal aspect.
Personality problem- Hearing difficulty may create personality problem. A deaf learner becomes more frustrated as he/she tries to reach the level of the normal and a totally deaf child seems reconciled to his fate. But given well provided adequate facility of language and communication with regard to literacy development in regular school they develop personal adjustment and well developed scholastic achievement in hearing impaired students. This happens only in Early Education Intervention services.
Family Outcomes of Education Intervention
Children develop through the complex interlink of nature and nurture and the family plays a very important role in the development. In other words, children are born with some innate abilities. They have different levels of intelligence and they have different kinds of attitudes. The way they are brought up decides many of their achievement levels. The family can help in bringing up the children with the right attitude and develop their full potential. Every child needs to be nurtured with love and affection and guided by adults who have knowledge about the child. Deprivation and Rejection by the family can adversely affect any child, more so a child with disability. Deprivation of any kind due to poverty, wrong attitudes or ignorance will affect the nutrition, health and psychosocial development of the child. Rejection of any kind, for reasons of gender, unwanted, unplanned conception, poverty and disability in the child affect the growth and development of the child.
The professionals have a very important role in educating the family. The family members need to feel confident that they are doing the right thing for their child. Family members need guidance to recognize their strengths and skills in parenting. They need help to be able to handle the problems with maturity. The knowledge of the disability in the child changes the roles and dynamics of the entire family, including the siblings. The family members need counseling and guidance to realize the importance of their contribution to the welfare of the child with hearing impairment. The professionals need to include all the family members directly or indirectly into the intervention programme.