Unit 2: Family Needs

2.1 Identifying Family Needs for information, decision making, skill transfer and referral

2.2 Fostering family’s acceptance of child’s impairment and creating a positive environment

2.3 Building parents’ confidence for making informed choices (communication options, options for listening devices, school placement) and Advocacy

2.4 Supporting family in raising children with hearing impairment: Facilitating availing of concessions, facilities and scholarship & other benefits

2.5 Encouraging family participation in self-help groups and family support networking













2.1 Identifying Family Needs for information, decision making, skill transfer and referral


Rehabilitation of people with disabilities is a process aimed at enabling them to reach and maintain their optimal physical, sensory, intellectual, psychological and social functional levels. Rehabilitation provides disabled people with the tools they need to attain independence and self-determination.

The basic objective of rehabilitation is to restore the physical, social and psychological restore the physical, social and psychological potential to a level, so that he can independently function and carry on

·      an independent life

·      prevent disability and return to normalcy

·      maximum level of restoration through different interventions

·      training in vocational methods to suit working with residual disability and earn a living

Rehabilitation approaches :

·      Community based

·      Institution based

·      Outreach programmes

·      Welfare measures

Need of family for rehabilitation of individual                                                                     

Untill recently, professionals in the rehabilitation field took a primarily client centered approach with the focus on the individual's handicap. There is now a realization among specialists that these individuals cannot be viewed as isolated entities. They need to be seen within their familial and societal contexts because of the reciprocal and interdependent relationships between such individuals and their families, and the influence that the family exerts on their overall development. Since the family can play a vital role in supporting such a member, its direct involvement in the rehabilitation process as an active partner in the multidisciplinary team is increasingly considered necessary. Moreover, it has been accepted that the overall goals of rehabilitation are the attainment of integration and equalization of opportunities by them in every facet of daily life, including a share in the normal social life of the family and the community

Factors influencing the condition of the family after the child’s disability occurrence

·    Quality of the family relations before the disability appears especially Quality of the relations between both parents.

·    A disabled child : type and severity of the disability , age at which the disability appears in , progress or lack of progress in the development and rehabilitation of a child

·    Financial and social status of the family

·    Parents educational level and their  previous contact with disability

·    Presence of other children in the family

·    Response of the extended family , friends , neighbours and other people to the disability of the child

·    Direct immediate support from the professionals and from the local community (early intervention) after disability occurs

Support for the family with a disabled child includes :

·      Psychological support and if necessary psychotherapy and psychiatric intervention

·      Raising of knowledge and competence of parents in different forms like breifing , teaching , workshop , seminars etc

·      Toy and book library , rehabilitation equipment and aids rental

·      Long and short term respite care

·      Social help and aid

·      Information , counselling , guidance services

·      Transport

·      Mutual support groups for the family with the similar problems

The designers and providers of human services affect the daily experience and the future prospects of the people , families and communities who rely on them.

·      Their policies and daily practice influence

·      where a person who depends on services lives ,learns , work and plays

·      What activities fill the person’s daily life

·      Who the person gets to know and where the person belongs

·      The way the person and other understand who the person is

The forms of support for the families with a disabled member have to refer to all of the life’s spheres and have to enable the access to :

·      Health care, education, social benefits and housing

·      Special aids and rehabilitation equipments

·      Social rehabilitation and daily activity for those who cannot work

·      Vocational rehabilitation and training , employment and support in job placement

·      Advocacy , personal assistance and legal protection

·      Meaningful and active leisure time activities

·      Services in the community ,participation in culture , sports and recreation

·      Respite care

Family support – in the centre consist of

·      Assesment of the child and providing parents with comprehensive information about therapeutical and educational program of their child

·      Parents club – support group for the parents run by psychologists

·      Consultations with specialists

·      Information exchange between staff of the centre and parents on the daily basis

·      Medical consultation in the center

·      Assistant for the parents in accordance to help them with formal procedures connected with disablity of their child

·      Fitting up the rehabilitation equipment and special aids .

·      Organization of the leisure time activities

·      Organization of the financial and in kind support (clothes , wheelchair , furniture etc)

·      Integration of the family environment – ceremonies and events inside and outside the center

·      Special transport provision

Family support – home services :

·      Education and rehabilitation at home in case of the bad health condition

·      Respite care: casual and short programs at the family home

·      Personal assistance for the summer vacation trips and stays

·      Support for the parents during the participant’s hospitalization

·      Actions and interventions of social worker


2.2 Fostering family’s acceptance of child’s impairment and creating a positive environment


Receiving a hearing loss diagnosis can be an overwhelming and frightening experience for most parents, but understanding and overcoming the barriers to family support and engagement is critical to making sure your child leads a successful and healthy life. Learning about audiology, your child’s hearing impairment, the smart hearing aid options available and identifying resources and sources of peer support can break down barriers and stigma, reducing overwhelming problems into manageable aspects for both parent and child. When trying to make children feel positive and engaged with difficult and sometimes isolating aspects of their hearing loss treatment, positive outcomes are a result of an engaged and loving family.

For children with hearing loss, early identification and intervention are essential to improving their communication and academic outcomes. Thanks to the development and implementation of universal newborn hearing screening, more children than ever before are having their hearing loss identified early. This allows hearing care professionals to provide intervention and support at an earlier stage for improved outcomes.
However, research indicates that early identification and intervention are not the only measures that determine a child’s success in communication and education. Family engagement is one of the greatest predictors of a child’s early success, as well as their development into adulthood. Parents, guardians, and other family members can support a child who is deaf or hard of hearing by:


Family members of children with normal hearing can practice all of the above items as well. Parents, guardians, and family members of children with hearing loss may also:

The above factors are important in giving a deaf or hard-of-hearing child the best possible chance for success. However, studies have found that families of a newly diagnosed child often report a lack of information and emotional support. Hearing care professionals must provide information, help the family find support, and foster and facilitate engagement.
In the early stages of a child’s intervention, a team of hearing health care professionals can provide needed information and support to families. These teams can include audiologists, otolaryngologists, auditory verbal therapists, educational specialists, psychologists, and social workers.
One method that has proven helpful in engaging families is known as motivational interviewing (MI). This process acknowledges the challenges associated with making life changes, such as caring for a child who is deaf or hard of hearing. MI focuses on open-ended questions, affirmations, reflective listening, and summarization.

When you realise that your child is suffering from hearing loss, you will probably feel shocked and helpless, at first. It may be difficult to accept what the doctors tell you. This is a perfectly normal reaction, and it can take time to accept the reality of a hearing loss.

After some time, you will come to terms with the situation. Your and your child's task then becomes to make the best of it. By then, you will have asked yourself many questions about your child's daily life and future. But we are all different, and no two parents react in exactly the same way.

The best approach is to be honest and open-minded. Ask all the questions you can think of. Seek help from audiologists, doctors, other parents in the same situation, family and friends. The professionals can provide information and guidance. Parents of hearing-impaired children can help you with their experience. Family and friends may provide you with psychological and moral support.

Remember that you are not the first parent to have a hearing-impaired child and that hearing-impaired children are better able to cope than you might realise.


Creating a positive environment for children

The most important thing parents can do to prevent children from having a negative development outcome is to create a protective and caring environment in the families. Various theoreticians have highlighted the importance of protective factors in the familial setting and its positive impact on child development and their well-being. The following are some protective factors.

Managing stress and functioning well when faced with challenges, adversity and trauma.

The way parents respond to stressors is much more important than the stressor itself in determining the outcomes for themselves and their children. Parents who can manage day-today work stress and function well are said to be resilient. They are able to manage anger, anxiety, sadness, loneliness, and other negative feelings.

Having a sense of connectedness with constructive, supportive people and institutions

Friends, family members, neighbours and other members of a community provide emotional and social support to parents. For instance, in a joint family system, the grandparents used to take care of the younger ones but also guided new mothers into healthy child-rearing practices. Their guidance and assistance reduced the stress of new mothers and the mothers felt more confident in handling their babies. Social connections help parents build networks of support that serve multiple purposes: they can help parents develop and reinforce community norms around child-rearing, provide assistance in times of need, and serve as a resource for parenting information or help solving problems. Because isolation is a common risk factor for abuse and neglect in our societies. Thus, parents living in nuclear families need support in building positive friendships and strengthen their familial ties.

Understanding best practices of parenting and developmentally appropriate child skills and behaviours

Having accurate information about raising young children and appropriate expectations for their behaviours help parents better understand and take care of their children. It is important that information is available when parents need it, that is, when it is relevant to their life and their child. Parents whose own families used harsh discipline techniques or parents of children with developmental or behaviour problems or special needs require extra support in building this Protective Factor.

Identifying, accessing and receiving needed adult, child and family services

Parents need access to the types of concrete supports and services that can minimize the stress of difficult situations, such as a family crisis, a condition such as substance abuse, or stress associated with lack of resources. Building this Protective Factor is about helping to ensure the basic needs of a family, such as food, clothing, and shelter, are met and connecting parents and children to services, especially those that have a stigma associated with them, like domestic violence shelter or substance abuse counselling, in times of crisis.

Forming secure, positive adult and peer relationships; experiencing, regulating and expressing emotions

Parents these days are juggling with the demands of work, home, and other responsibilities. This leaves many parents feeling like they do not have enough time with/and for their children. What is needed to be acknowledged is that even small acts of kindness, protection and caring―a hug, a smile, or loving words―make a big difference to children. Research shows that a consistent relationship with a caring adult in the early years is associated with better grades, healthier behaviours, more positive peer interactions, and an increased ability to cope with stress later in life. Infant brains develop best when caregivers work to understand and meet the infant’s need for love, affection, and stimulation.

Social-emotional competence in early childhood, also known as Infant Mental Health, includes:

A child’s ability to interact positively with others, to self-regulate, and to effectively communicate his or her emotions has a great impact on the parent-child relationship. Children with challenging behaviours are more likely to be abused, so early identification and working with them helps keep their development on track and keeps them safe. Also, children who have experienced or witness violence need a safe environment that offers them opportunities to develop normally.



2.3 Building parents’ confidence for making informed choices (communication options, options for listening devices, school placement) and Advocacy


Parents are faced with all kinds of decisions throughout the life of their child. As the parent of a child who is deaf or hard of hearing, these decisions may be about choices that are new to you - most families know little about deafness when their child is identified with a hearing loss. Knowing you are making the right choices at the right time can often be clouded by stress or by the differing views of professionals, family and friends. The amount of information given to you can be overwhelming given the complex nature of many of the issues. How can you make the right choices?

The issue of informed choice for families with a deaf child is an important one. Parents of deaf children often feel that they may have made different choices if they had been provided with all the relevant information about the options available to them. In the past, the kind of information parents received may have depended on where they lived or what their service provider thought might be best.

Each of the two words in "informed choice" highlights an essential aspect of the decision-making process. Parents need to be informed about their options, but this is not sufficient. Parents also need choices. The choices may not always be available in your area or state but you need to know about them so you can weigh up all your options.

For example, most newborn hearing screening programs subscribe to the principle of informed choice. However, putting this into practice may not always be a reality. Some professionals may have strongly held views about what might be best for your child. Limited funding, low staffing levels and shortage of skills can place considerable pressure on service providers. Each of these factors may make professionals reluctant to tell parents about all their options and this can inhibit the parents' ability to make informed choices.

The purpose of informed choice is to ensure that all parents decide for themselves on the care that best suits the needs of their child and family. Every family is different and the choices you make should reflect your family's desires, beliefs and values.

This does not mean you need to make these decisions on your own. The relationship you have with the professionals looking after your child is an important one and should be seen as a partnership of two experts. The professionals are experts on hearing loss and you are the expert on your child and his or her needs. The professional's role is to help you think through the decision-making process, focus on key issues and evaluate your options.

Reliable information is crucial if you are to make an informed choice. There are many ways for you to find the information you need:

Wherever you find information, it must be reliable, up-to-date and should be based on good research. However, there are a number of areas of hearing loss (such as unilateral hearing loss and auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder) where research is ongoing. Research may not always be conclusive and you may not always be able to find definite answers.

The information you get from other parents and Deaf adults, may not be based on research but on the "lived experience." This can provide you with some valuable insights into how a chosen option may affect your child and family. Remember this information may be coloured by the views and experiences of the individual, so do not rely on this information alone. Compare their experiences and information with other sources and seek the opinion of professionals looking after your child.

Communication options

Options for listening devices

Many children who are deaf or hard-of-hearing have some hearing. The amount of hearing a deaf or hard-of-hearing child has is called “residual hearing“. There are many ways to make the most of your child’s residual hearing. In this section, you can learn more about some of these different ways. This section will give you more information about:

There are many other devices available for children and adults with hearing loss. Some of these include:

Please ask you baby’s audiologist about these and other types of assistive listening devices

Educational Placements

The following descriptions are meant to provide a brief introduction to the most common options available in the United States. Families are encouraged to explore their options and to seek the support of trusted professionals while making their decisions. A desirable setting may not be offered in every school district, in which case the family may choose to challenge their limited selection. In addition, it is important to remember that each child has unique strengths and challenges, which may change as he/she moves through the school years. Educational laws are designed to allow families to re-evaluate their child’s educational setting and, with help from the school, make appropriate changes.

Mainstream Placement

Mainstreaming is defined as placing children with disabilities in regular schools and classrooms where they follow the mainstream academic curriculum, without significant problems or the need for teachers to make curriculum adaptations. Parents and professionals should not confuse mainstreaming with inclusion, which means a child is placed in a regular classroom regardless of the degree of their disability or their ability to access the regular curriculum.


The student attends all classes with hearing peers, usually in their home school district. The school provides appropriate support services that help the child succeed in school. While some children will need a lot of support, others will need less. These services may include: speech and language therapy, assistive listening systems, interpreters, curriculum and test-taking accommodations, resource services, physical or occupational therapies, as well as others that have been identified as necessary. Children educated in an inclusionary setting typically communicate using either spoken language, an English-based sign language, or Cued Speech. This is not a common setting for students whose language is based in American Sign Language (ASL).

Partially Mainstreamed

The student spends part of the day in a self-contained class and part of the day in an inclusionary setting.


Self-Contained Classroom

The student is in a class made up entirely of children with hearing loss, which is taught by a Teacher of the Deaf. Often times, the class is within a larger public school with typically hearing children. Children educated in this type of setting communicate using either spoken language, Cued Speech, or sign language.

School for the Deaf – day program

The entire student body is comprised of children with hearing losses. The children are generally bussed from their home district to a program that serves a wide regional area. These programs base their educational approaches on one of the following: auditory/oral, ASL, or total communication philosophies.

Residential School

The student attends and lives at a school for the deaf. These schools also follow one of the three philosophies listed above. It is important to note that families who adhere to the Auditory-Verbal approach will not typically place their child in a specialized program. The very nature of an auditory-verbal philosophy specifies that the child attend a fully inclusionary educational setting with necessary support services.

Questions for families to ask when exploring an educational setting

1. What are the school’s expectations for a student with hearing loss?

2. What is the school’s philosophy with regards to auditory development for a child with hearing loss?

3. If it is a school for the deaf, what opportunities are there for interaction with hearing peers and/or mainstream classrooms?

4. How much experience does the school have with educating students with special needs?

5. What is the school’s policy regarding classroom observations by parents and other team members?

6. Is the staff willing to work with professionals from a different facility?



Parents and others who work with children with hearing loss feel the need to advocate for the children. However, the most important part of advocacy is learning to advocate for oneself.

When children rely on others to advocate for them, they do not feel powerful. But when they are capable of advocating for themselves they feel good about who they are. They feel competent.

Even very young children can learn some self-advocacy skills. It is important to develop self-advocacy skills early. If a child does not do so at a young age, it becomes more difficult to gain these skills later on.


Pre-school children can learn to put technology on and take it off. They can put it into the “hearing aid box” where it will stay overnight. They need to be taught to recognize when the equipment is not working and to report it to an adult. They can be encouraged to ask for repetition when they do not hear or understand what is said.


By kindergarten, children should recognize that they hear better when they are closer to the talker, and they should be encouraged to move closer on their own. A kindergarten child should be able to ask for specific help if she does not understand: Please repeat, please speak louder or slower, etc.

 First grade

By first grade, children should be able to let the teacher know if the FM system is not working, and should be able to use a pass mic to improve their ability to hear other children. They should understand the different parts of the hearing aid, cochlear implant, and FM system and be able to talk about what they do.

 Second grade

Second graders should be able to report situations where listening is difficult, to recognize when something does not make sense, to begin to use communication repair strategies, and be able to perform basic troubleshooting.

 Third grade

By the time they are in third grade, children should be able to develop self-advocacy strategies for difficult situations. They should be able to explain to the teacher how to use the FM system, and to have become better able to discuss when there is a communication breakdown.

 Who teaches self-advocacy skills?

Everyone who works with a child with hearing loss should participate in advocacy training. Parents need to wait for children to answer and encourage them to ask for repetition. When the earmold comes out or the hearing aid falls off, we need to help the child make the repair and not do it for them.

We need to ask children if they heard what we said and understood it. If they say “no” we need to ask them what they are supposed to do when they do not understand, and encourage them to ask for repetition or clarification rather than just asking to have the statement repeated. When I ask a child a question, parents frequently jump in and repeat the question to the child “Jane wants to know…..”

That is not helping. It’s true that a child will definitely have an easier time listening to a more familiar voice, but he really needs to be able to communicate with a lot of people. It is a team effort. We all have to work on it.


2.4 Supporting family in raising children with hearing impairment: Facilitating availing of concessions, facilities and scholarship & other benefits


For many parents, their baby’s hearing loss is unexpected. Many parents need time and support to adapt not only to having a new family member but also to the baby’s hearing loss.

Parents of children with recently identified hearing loss can seek different kinds of support. Family support is anything that helps a family. This help may include advice, information, having the chance to get to know other parents that have a child with hearing loss, finding childcare or transportation, giving parents time for personal relaxation or just a supportive listener.


General Entitlements

1.     Persons with disabilities are eligible for income tax deduction under Section 80U. Deduction of Rs. 50,000 is provided to those with disability in the range of 40 per cent to 80 per cent. Deduction of Rs. 1,00,000 is provided to those with more than 80 per cent disability.

2.     Legal guardians of dependant persons with disabilities are eligible for income tax deduction under section 80DD for expenditures incurred on medical care, training and rehabilitation expenses or annuity paid. Deduction of Rs. 50,000 can be claimed for dependents with 40 per cent to 80 per cent disability and Rs. 1,00,000 can be claimed for dependants with 80 per cent or more disabilities.

3. Persons with disabilities are exempted from payment of professional tax.

Sl. No.

Notification / Scheme

Issuing Authority

Notification No / Date

Deduction under 80U

Ministry of Finance

Deduction under 80DD

Ministry of Finance

Exemption from professional tax

Ministry of Finance


1.     Scheme of National Scholarship for Persons with Disabilities – Scholarship is awarded for pursueing post matric / professional / technical courses of duration more than one year. For students with autism / cerebral palsy / mental retardation / multiple disabilities the scholarship is provided from Class 9 onwards. Advertisements are placed in all national dailies and on the MSJE website in the month of June. Applicants are eligible if they have disability above 40 per cent and the total family income does not exceed Rs. 15,000 per month.


Day Scholars


Graduate / PG courses in Professional / Technical

Rs. 700

Rs. 1000

Diploma / Certificate level professional courses

Rs. 400

Rs. 700

2.     Fees up to Rs. 10,000 are reimbursed every year. Financial assistance is provided for procuring computer with editing software for students with visual impairment / hearing impairment pursueing graduate / post graduate professional courses and support access software for students with cerebral palsy.

3.     Students with disabilities are provided three per cent reservation in seats in government and government aided educational institutes.

4.     Comprehensive Education Scheme for Disabled Children – The scheme provides for accessible and barrier free built-in infrastructure and transport facilities, supply of books, uniforms and stationery, specialised learning aids and scholarships for students with disabilities. Other provisions in the scheme include exemption from mathematics and pictoral questions for visually impaired students, use of scribes / readers for students with visual impairment / orthopaedic disabilities / learning disabilities, extra time in examinations for disabled students, exemption from third language and modification of curriculum to facilitate inclusive education.

5.     Inclusive Education for the Disabled at Secondary Stage (IEDSS) – This scheme supports children with disabilities aged 14 or above for completing their secondary education from Class 9 to Class 12 in government, local body and government aided schools. The scheme provides for identification of children with disabilities moving from elementary school to secondary and providing them with aids and appliances for their disabilities, access to learning material, transport facilities, hostel facilities, scholarships, books, assistive technologies and provision of scribes and readers.

6.     Rajiv Gandhi Fellowship scheme – This scheme provides scholarships to persons with disabilities to pursue higher education such as M Phil / Ph D. The scheme offers 200 fellowships every year and covers all the universities and institutions covered by the University Grants Commission. All students with disabilities admitted to M. Phil / Ph. D programmes of any university or academic institution are eligible to receive the fellowship provided they meet the requirements of the scheme. The fellowship will be awarded for a maximum of five years.

Sl. No.

Notification / Scheme

Issuing Authority

Notification No. / Date


Scheme of National Scholarship for Persons with Disabilities

Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment


3% reservation in govt / govt aided institutes

Ministry of Edication


Comprehensive Education Scheme for Disabled Children

Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment



Integrated Education for the Disabled in the Secondary Stage.

Department of Education


Rajiv Gandhi Fellowship to pursue higher education

T – Department of Disability Affairs

04. 2012

Introduction of New Schemes/Streamlining Existing Schemes:

(i) Scholarship Schemes for ‘Students with Disabilities: Prior to 2014 there was only scholarship scheme viz., National Fellowship for Persons with Disabilities.

(ii) New Scholarship schemes introduced after 2014:-

i. Pre-matric (For Classes IX & X). Average Scholarship amount Rs. 8,500/- per annum.

ii. Post-matric (For Classes XI to Post-Graduate degree/diploma). Average Scholarship amount Rs. 35,000/- per annum.

iii. Top Class Education (For Graduate degree/Post-Graduate) Degree/Diploma in notified institutes of excellence in education). Average Scholarship amount Rs.1.75 lakh per annum.

iv. National Overseas Scholarship (For Master’s Degree/Doctorate in Universities abroad). Average Scholarship amount Rs. 20.00 lakh per annum.

v. National Fellowship for persons with Disabilities.

vi. Free Coaching (For appearing at competitive examinations for Government jobs and admission to technical and professional Courses). Average Scholarship amount Rs. 85,000/- per annum.

· All the six scholarship schemes have now been merged under an umbrella scheme titled ‘Scholarships for Students with Disabilities’ to streamline the implementation process.

· The Pre-matric, Post-matric and Top Class scholarship Schemes are implemented through the National Scholarship Portal.

· In all the scholarship schemes, grants are released to beneficiaries in DBT mode.

(iii) Further Modifications introduced in Scholarship Scheme w.e.f. 01.4.2018

I. Pre- matric:

· Rate of maintenance allowances enhanced to Rs.2400/- per annum.

· Parental income ceiling increased to Rs. 2.50 lakh per annum from Rs.2.00 lakh per annum.

· Disability allowance in the range of Rs.2000 per annum to Rs. 4000 per annum, according to type of disability.

II. Post-Matric:

· Rate of maintenance allowances enhanced Rs.8400/- per annum.

· Disability allowance in the range of Rs.2000 per annum to Rs. 4000 per annum, according to type of disability.

III. Top class:

· Graduate level courses included.

· No. of slots increased from 160 to300 .

IV. National Overseas Scholarship:

· Applications accepted throughout the year.

· Amount of solvency certificate reduced to Rs.50,000/- in view of difficulties faced by SwDs.

V. Scholarships are released through DBT Mode:

During the last eight years scholarships provided to 1.84 lakh students with disabilities at a cost of Rs.556.37 crore.


1.     The government has reserved three per cent posts in Groups A, B, C and Group D positions in government services, public sector banks and government undertakings for persons with disabilities. The reservations are provided as:



Visually Impaired

One Per cent

Hearing Impaired

One Per cent

Physically disabled

One Per cent


2.     A roster of 100 points is prescribed for reserving positions for persons with disabilities in government employment. Points on the roster are reserved as given below for every year:


Roster Point

Visually Impaired


Hearing Impaired


Physically disabled



3.     IF for any year the vacancies reserved for persons with disabilities are not filled, the vacancies are required to be carried forward for three consecutive years until a suitable candidate is found. If a suitable candidate is not found even after three years, the vacancies may be filled through interchanging between disabilities after which the reservation ceases to exist.

4.     Persons with disabilities are given an age relaxation of up to ten years in the upper age limit for recruitment to government positions. They are also exempted from payment of application fees and examination fees.

5.     The government provides that persons with disabilities should not be denied promotion in their employment on account of the disability / medical fitness if they are otherwise medically fit and can discharge their duties satisfactorily.

6.     The government has identified positions in various departments and sections that are to be reserved for persons with disabilities based on their ability to perform the work of the position.

7.     The government provides that persons with disabilities recruited to Group C and Group D employment on regional basis may be given postings, as far as possible under administrative constraints, nearest to their native places within the region. Requests from disabled employees for transfers to offices in or nearest to their native places may also be given priority.

8.     The government has established special employment exchanges for persons with disabilities in all state capitals and special employment cells have been set up in all district headquarters for recruitment to government posts reserved for persons with disabilities. In places where special employment exchanges have not been established, special employment cells have been set up within regular employment exchanges. Persons with disabilities are required to register themselves with the special employment exchanges / cells to be eligible for government employment under reservation. Special employment registrations can also be done at the 17 vocational rehabilitation centres for persons with disabilities.

9.     The government provides for employment of persons with disabilities in the private sector through incentives to employers. The government pays the employer’s contribution of the disabled employee’s provident fund and employee state insurance up to three years for employment of persons with disabilities with a minimum salary of Rs. 25,000 per month.

10.The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas has reserved 7.5 per cent of all types of dealership agencies of public sector oil companies for persons with physical disabilities. This does not include defence personnel injured while on service. The dealership is advertised in one English daily and one regional language daily having maximum circulation in the district where the dealership is located. Applicants should be Indian citizens, aged between 21 years to 30 years, should have a minimum educational qualification of matriculation or equivalent, should produce disability certificate with minimum 40 percent disability of either upper limb or lower limb or both limbs considered together. Persons with partial hearing impairment are also eligible to apply. Persons with total visual impairment are eligible to apply for retail outlets, kerosene / LDO dealerships but are not eligible to apply for LPG dealership. Total family income of applicant should not exceed Rs. 50,000 per annum.

11.The National Handicapped Finance and Development Corporation provides loans to persons with disabilities for self employment. The details of the schemes are given as under:

o   For setting up small business in service / trading sector – loan of Rs. 3,00,000 (Three lakh)

o   For setting up small business in sales / trading sector – Rs. 5,00,000 (five lakh)

o   For agriculture / allied activities – Loan of up to Rs. 10,00,000 (ten lakh)

o   Purchase of vehicle for commercial hiring – Loan of Rs. 10,00,000 (ten lakh)

o   For setting up small industries unit – Loan of Rs. 25,00,000 (25 lakh)

o   For professionally educated / trained persons with disabilities for self-employment – Rs. 25,00,000 (25 lakh)

o   For building business premises on own land for employment – Rs. 3,00,000 (three lakh)

The business for which financial assistance is sought should be directly operated by the applicant. In case of persons with autism, cerebral palsy or mental retardation, the parent / spouse / legal guardian of the applicant is authorised to enter into contract with NHFDC on behalf of the applicant. Applicant should fulfil the following eligibility criteria:

·       Should have disability of minimum 40 percent

·       Should be an Indian citizen

·       Should have required professional / technical qualification for the business undertaken

·       Loans should be repaid by a maximum of 10 years.

Sl. No.

Notification / Scheme

Issuing Authority

Notification No. / Date


3% reservation in employment

Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pension


Roster system for reservation

Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pension


Carry forward of employment reservation

Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pension


Age relaxation for direct recruitment

Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pension


Non denial of promotion

Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pension


Identification of jobs

Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pension


Postings / Transfer of disabled employees

Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions – Department of Personnel and Training



Special employment exchanges


Incentives for private employers

Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment – Department of Disability Affairs


Award of dealership / agency by oil companies

Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas


Financial assistance from NHFDC

National Handicapped Finance & Development Corporation


Social Security, Health, Rehabilitation and Recreation

1.     The Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme: This was inserted as a component of the National Social Assistance Programme on 17th February, 2009 by the Secretary, Ministry for Rural Development. Under IGNDPS, central assistance of Rs. 300 p.m. per beneficiary is provided to persons with severe or multiple disabilities in the age group of 18-79 years and belonging to a household living BPL as per criteria prescribed by Government of India. This scheme has been implemented in 8 districts of Manipur and a total of Rs 13.4 lakhs has been received by the State Government for this scheme in 2010-11.

2.     Composite Regional Centres for Persons with Disabilities (CRCs): Due to lack of adequate facilities for rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities, the Ministry has set up multiple Composite Regional Centres for Persons with Disabilities at Srinagar, Sundernagar (Himachal Pradesh), Lucknow, Bhopal, Kozhikode, Ahmedabad (No. 6-9/2009-NIs) and Guwahati to provide both preventive and promotional aspects of rehabilitation like education, health, employment and vocational training, research and manpower development, rehabilitation for persons with disabilities etc.

3.     District Disability Rehabilitation Centres (DDRCs): The Ministry with active support of State Governments is facilitating setting up District Disability Rehabilitation Centres (DDRCs) to provide rehabilitation services to persons with disabilities. Centres are being set up in unreached and unserved districts of the country in a phased manner. These centres are to provide services for prevention and early detection, referral for medical intervention and surgical correction, fitment of artificial aids and appliances, therapeutical services such as physiotherapy, occupational and speech therapy, provision of training for acquisition of skills through vocational training, job placement in local industries etc. at district headquarters as well as through camp approach.

4.     Assistance to Disabled Persons for Purchase /Fitting of Aids and Appliances (ADIP Scheme): The main objective of the scheme is to assist needy persons with disabilities in procuring durable sophisticated and scientifically manufactured, modern, standard aids and appliances that can promote their physical, social and psychological rehabilitation by reducing the effects of disabilities and enhance their economic potential. Aids and appliances which do not cost less than Rs. 50 and not more than Rs. 6,000 are covered under the scheme. Further travelling cost would be admissible and limited to a bus fare in the ordinary class or railway by second class sleeper subject to a limit of Rs. 250 for the beneficiary irrespective of the number of visits to a medical centre.

5.     Public Sector Banks: Under the ‘Scheme for Public Sector Banks for Orphanages, Women’s Homes and Physically Handicapped Persons’, the benefits of the differential rate of interest are available to physically handicapped persons as well as institutions working for the welfare of the handicapped. Rate of interest will be uniformly charged at 4% per annum keeping in view the social objectives. Under the scheme of Financing Small Scale Industries, a special provision has been made in the rate of interest for the physically handicapped person (0.5% concession) for availing capital limit up to Rs.2,00,000/-.

6.     The National Handicapped Finance and Development Corporation (NHFDC): This corporation has been set up by the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment, Government of India on 24th January 1997. The company is registered under Section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956 as a Company not for profit. It is wholly owned by Government of India and has an authorised share capital of Rs. 400 crores (Rupees Four Hundred Crore only). The NHFDC functions as an Apex institution for channelising the funds to persons with disabilities through the State Channelising Agencies (SCAs) nominated by the State Government(s). The schemes include loans for setting up small business in service/trading/industrial units, for higher studies/professional training, for manufacturing /production of assistive devices for disabled persons, for agricultural activities, for self employment amongst persons with mental retardation, Cerebral Palsy and Autism.

7.     Deendayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme (DDRS): Replaced the earlier ‘Scheme to Promote Voluntary Action for Persons with Disabilities’ on 01.04.2009. Under this scheme financial assistance is provided through NGOs for various projects for providing education, vocational training and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities. It is a scheme to promote voluntary action for persons with disabilities. The maximum level of support could be up to 90% of the eligible amount of grant for the project. During the 10th Five Year Plan grant-in-aid to the extent of Rs. 335.4 cr. was released to NGOs under the revised DDRS.

8.     Indira Awaas Yojana: It is a centrally sponsored housing scheme for providing dwelling units free of cost to the rural poor living below the poverty line at a unit cost of Rs. 20,000 in plain areas and Rs. 22, 000 in the hill/difficult areas. Three percent of its funds are reserved for the benefit of disabled persons living below the poverty line in rural areas.

9.     Scheme of National Awards for the Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities: In order to recognise their effort and encourage others to strive to achieve excellence in this field, separate awards are being presented to the most efficient/outstanding employees with disabilities, best employers, best placement agency/officer, outstanding individuals, outstanding institutions, role models, outstanding creative disabled individuals and for outstanding technological innovation and adaptation of innovation to provide cost effective technology. Awards are also given to Government Sector, Public Sector Undertakings and private enterprises for creating barrier free environment for the persons with disabilities, the best district in the field of disability rehabilitation, best Local Level Committee of the National Trust and to the best State Channelising Agency (SCA) of the National Handicapped Finance and Development Corporation (NHFDC). Preference is given to the placement of women with disabilities, particularly, from the rural areas and self-employed women.

10.Trust Fund for the Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities: The Supreme Court in its order dated 16th April, 2004 in the Civil Appeals No.4655 and 5218 of 2000 had directed that the banks, who had collected an estimated excess amount of Rs.723.79 crores annually from the borrowers through rounding off in collection of interest tax, should transfer it to a trust which would be used for welfare of persons with disabilities. The Court had constituted a Committee under the chairmanship of Comptroller and Auditor General of India with Finance Secretary and Law Secretary as members. The Ministry had sought directions of the Apex court for transfer of these funds to the National Trust for Welfare of persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities for purposeful utilization. The Supreme Court is yet to take a view on the request of the Ministry but in the meantime the trust has been set up and the banks have been advised by the Banking Division of the Ministry of Finance to deposit the due amount in the Trust account.

11.Technology Development Projects in Mission Mode: With a view to provide suitable and cost effective aids and appliances through the application of technology and to increase their employment opportunities and integration in society of the physically disabled, the above scheme was started during 1990-91. Under the scheme, suitable R&D projects are identified and funded for developing aids and appliances. The scheme is implemented through the IITs. Educational Institutes, Research Agencies and Voluntary Organisations etc. Financial assistance is provided on 100% basis. The four Technical Advisory Groups monitor the selection of the projects and also their progress at different stages in areas of disabilities, namely, Orthopaedic (including Cerebral Palsy), Visual, Speech and Hearing and Mental. All the projects those are recommended by the respective Technical Advisory Groups placed before the Apex Level Committee headed by Secretary, Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.

Sl. No.


Issuing Authority

Date Issued


The Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme (IGNDP)  D.O.J.-11013/2/2007-NSAP

Ministry of Rural Development

February, 2009


Composite Regional Centres for Persons with Disabilities (CRCs)

Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment


District Disability Rehabilitation Centres (DDRCs)

Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment



Assistance to Disabled Persons for Purchase /Fitting of Aids and Appliances (ADIP Scheme)

Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment



‘Scheme of Public Sector Banks for Orphanages, Women's Home and Physically Handicapped persons' D.O.No.F.301/89-SCT (B) dated 8.9.89

Department of Economic Affairs & Ministry of Welfare



The National Handicapped Finance and Development Corporation (NHFDC)

Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment



Deendayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme (DDRS)

Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment



Indira Awaas Yojana

Ministry of Rural Development

May, 1985


Scheme of National Awards for the Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities

Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment



Trust Fund for the Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities via Civil Appeals No.4655 and 5218 of 2000

Supreme Court of India



Technology Development Projects in Mission Mode

Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment


Guidelines and Space Standards for Barrier Free Built Environment for Disabled and Elderly Persons :  In order to create a barrier free environment in consonance with the provisions of the Act, the Government of India (Ministry of Urban Affairs & Employment) is currently engaged in the process of amending/modifying the existing building bye-laws which would be applicable to all buildings and facilities used by the public. With this intention to ensure that everyone, including the physically disabled and elderly persons ,will have equal access in everyday life in the city, the Min. of UA&E has constituted a committee under the chairmanship of DG(W), CPWD with the following members for the purpose of developing comprehensive Guide lines and space Standards for barrier free built environment for disabled and elderly persons.

Sl. No.


Issuing Authority

Date Issued


Guidelines for Space Standards for Barrier Free Built Environment for Disabled and Elderly Persons

Central Public Works Department



1.     Guidelines for issue of Disability Certificates: the Persons with Disabilities Rules, 1996 provide the broad guidelines for issue of the disability certificates. The Rules lay down that a Medical Board, duly constituted by the Central and the State Government, shall issue a Disability Certificate. The certificate issued by the Medical Board makes a person eligible to apply for facilities, concessions and benefits admissible under schemes of the Governments or Non-Governmental Organisations, subject to such conditions as the Central or the State Government may impose. It is for this reason that the Central Government has issued these guidelines with the aim of simplifying the procedures for issue of disability certificates. It has also created some additional guidelines for the issue of disability certificates to students with disabilities.

2.     Guidelines for evaluation of various disabilities and procedure for certification: The Government has notified the guidelines for evaluation of locomotor, visual, hearing, mental retardation and multiple disabilities and the procedure for certification, formulated by the Expert Committees set up by the Government, under the Chairmanship of Director General Health Services (DGHS), vide notification No. 16-18/97-NI I dated 1st June, 2001. As per the guidelines, the Director General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is the final authority, should there arise any controversy / doubt regarding the interpretation of the definitions/classifications / evaluations tests etc. Therefore, for any problems relating to evaluation of various disabilities and procedure for certification, Director General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Nirman Bhawan, New Delhi may be approached.

Sl. No.


Issuing Authority

Date Issued


Guidelines for Issue of Disability Certificates No. 16-18/97-NI

Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment


Guidelines for Evaluation of Various Disabilities and Procedure for Certification via D.O.No.F.301/89-SCT (B) DATED 8.9.89

Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment



·      Travel concessions for the disabled by train, bus and rail.

·      Income tax concession

·      Customs concession for individuals and institutions

·      Free distribution of aids and appliances for people with disability who cannot buy them.

·      Scheme of assistance to disabled persons for purchase and fitting of aids and appliances

·      Loans at concessional rates of interest for starting self

·      Employment activities

·      National and state awards

·      Family pension/Disability pension

·      Reimbursement of medical expenses and school tuition fees

·      Financial assistance for persons with disabilities.



2.5 Encouraging family participation in self-help groups and family support networking


The families have constant challenge of caring and supporting the hearing impaired throughout the life.

We believe there is a need to empower, motivate and support parents, through our member organisations. Parents of PWHIs are often confronted with stigmatization and discrimination because of their children’s disability. By forming Parents Self- Help Groups (PSHGs), parents will have a platform to meet people with the same circumstances with whom they can exchange their experiences and emotions. Together parents can support each other as they learn how to cope with these difficulties and gather tools and knowledge that can be helpful in their lives and those of their children. Due to the stigmatisation attached to hearing impairment, many families find it difficult to talk openly about their situation and more importantly to access the range of services available. Inclusion encourages Member Organisations to work with the parents of PWHIs in their communities to form Parent Self-Help Groups which can serve as platforms to share experiences and to build knowledge about living with PWHIs.

Parents are the focus of PSHGs, not their children. Parents need to be strong to be able to take care of their children. When parents are empowered, it is then that their children have possibilities. A parent can only help a child when she herself is strong.

The PSHG is about parents of children with hearing impairment coming together to share experiences, difficulties, and successes. These parents should be drawn together by a common background, exclusion and isolation from their families and society as a result of their disabled children.

The Parents Self-help group will offer parents the opportunity to meet with other parents and to share their experiences, knowledge, strengths and hopes. Parent participants will support each other as they cope with the stigmatisation of their children and themselves by sharing experiences or by advocating and lobbying against this stigmatisation.

Characteristics of Parents Self-Help Groups

Common Background: Parents in this group have a similar problem; the difficulties they face managing their children’s disability, and the stigmatisation and exclusion not only of the parents themselves, but of their children with Hearing impairment and their families, as well as friends and workers of institutions that provides any kind of support to their children.

A Need for Inclusion:  While parents may join initially out of a strong need for support and understanding, over time, participants will form real bonds of friendship and partnership as they face their problems of exclusion and stigmatization together.

Independence: Member organizations of Inclusion can facilitate and support the start-up of the PSHGs, however the end goal is for the independent functioning of these groups.

Co-operation and Mutual Support: PSHGs are based on the principles of sharing and working co-operatively, as well as the mutual support cultivated between parents of children with hearing impairment.

The focus of the Parents Self-Help Groups

As far as persons with hearing impairment are concerned, Parent Self-Help Groups would be the joining of parents, guardians and/or caregivers to form groups. The focus of these parent self-help groups is to share experiences, build strong relationships and to build mutual support networks, creating a platform for advocacy work, development of skills required to raise a child with hearing impairment, and meeting other needs that parents of PWHIs may identify.  

·      Provide mutual support to parents of PWHIs through the sharing of experiences i.e. stories, stresses, feelings, issues, and successes  

·      Decrease isolation felt by parents of PWHIS  

·      Learn about the various services that are available to persons with hearing impairment

·      Provide practical help to parents, for example, ways of coping with the feelings of exclusion and stigmatization.

A lot of effort is required to set up a PSHG. This is primarily due to the fact that most parents with children with hearing impairment do not see the point in meeting with other parents of PWHIs.