Unit 5: Classroom Management

5.1    Stimulating learning environment; physical and emotional

5.2    Common behaviour problems in children

5.3    Functional analysis of behaviour

5.4    Behaviour management techniques: Cognitive and behavioural

5.5    Modifying behaviours of children with special needs in inclusive and special classroom











5.1         Stimulating learning environment; physical and emotional


A stimulating classroom environment has benefits in terms of engaging students in the learning process and enhancing their educational experience.

Classroom Stimulation Benefits

The more students' interests and senses are piqued, the more engaged they'll become with the content being taught. It's difficult for students to remain active in the learning process when content is uninteresting, appears irrelevant, or requires countless hours of filling out worksheets. In a stimulating classroom, students are able to move around, learn new ways of receiving knowledge, and are encouraged to question everything around them. Because of this, it's easier for them to become involved in the learning process.

SEN classrooms require planning across an even broader spectrum of considerations than traditional setups. Our ever-growing expertise in this specialist area has led us to break these considerations and needs down into four key areas:

Cognition and learning - Children with certain disabilities may require practical sensory or physical experiences to support the development of abstract ideas and concepts.

Behavioural, emotional and social - Children who have these needs may require a more structured learning environment, with clear boundaries for each activity and additional space to move around. This ensures a comfortable distance between themselves and others, as well as a safe place to calm down.

Communication and interaction - Here, the need is for an easily-understood environment with a low level of distraction. Sensory stimulus should be incorporated to to reduce anxiety levels. Children with these considerations may also benefit from having access to a safe place to calm down.

Sensory and/or physical - Classrooms for children with sensory or physical impairments may require special attention to acoustic and lighting conditions. In addition to specialist aids, equipment or furniture, there may need to be some may need extra space and additional signposting. This is geared towards helping the pupils negotiate their environment unaided and independently - an crucial consideration.

When creating an optimised environment for learners with special educational needs and disabilities, there are a range of practical issues that need some thought.

Sensory elements - Control over lighting, acoustics, materials and textures can be essential in SEN spaces.

Health and wellbeing - The placement of appropriate toilets, showers and hygiene facilities needs thought. Frequency, location and accessibility of these facilities needs the utmost consideration.

Safety - You want to create an unobstructed space in which SEN pupils, or those with disabilities, can move freely and independently where appropriate.

Zones - It makes sense to maximise the space you have while factoring in quiet, calm and separate spaces for those who may need it. Depending on the needs of the pupils, this may include therapy and/or sensory rooms.

Access to the outdoors - Clients we’ve partnered with across education place growing emphasis on outdoor learning - and classrooms can be customised towards achieving these objectives for pupils with SEN. Often, our classrooms feature bi-fold doors, allowing for greater adaptation as well as the offering flexibility to in ‘bring the outdoors in’. Canopies can be used to to protect from the elements and encourage the use of outdoor spaces.

It is absolutely essential to focus on creating a positive learning environment through good SEN classroom design. Understanding the users’ point of view, the use of space, and the crucial role of a multi-sensory environment all contribute towards ensuring that the design is fit for purpose. How the building ‘feels’ and functions - as well as how it looks - is hugely important. A SEN build might need to adapt several times in a single day to fit to students’ individual needs; so your building should fit sensory as well as practical elements.

All children benefit from exposure to multisensory lessons; including those who may not have any difficulties with learning or paying attention. Whether general education or special education, if a student has the opportunity to learn something using more than one sense, the information is more likely to make a memorable impact and be internalized.

However, multisensory learning can be particularly helpful for students with learning disabilities and cognitive limitations who may have difficulty in one or more areas of education. For example, a differently-abled student may have trouble processing visual information. This can make it challenging for them to learn and retain information through only reading and visual stimuli. Using other senses, such as tactile or auditory, these children can make a stronger connection with what they’re learning.

The physical characteristics of learning environments can affect learners emotionally, with important cognitive and behavioral consequences. Although emotional reactions to environmental stimuli have been shown to vary widely across individuals and activities, most students would probably find learning difficult in a classroom that is stiflingly warm. Conversely, environments that elicit positive emotional responses may lead not only to enhanced learning but also to a powerful, emotional attachment to that space. It may become a place where students love to learn, a place they seek out when they wish to learn, and a place they remember fondly when they reflect on their learning experiences. In higher education, we hope to provide such places for our students to learn, even as we build yet another large lecture hall and attempt to squeeze our students into crowded, noisy, and uncomfortable spaces. Clearly, some learning environments are more comfortable and offer fewer distractions than others. In any learning environment, physical characteristics that cause discomfort can be expected to interfere with learning; environments that produce positive emotional states can be expected to facilitate learning and the development of place attachment.



5.2         Common behaviour problems in children


Behavior:  Any observable and measurable activities is known as behavior.

Types Of Behavior

·      Skill behavior :- Means which is socially accepted and it is an age appropriate.

·      Problem behavior :- Means which is not socially accepted and it is not age appropriate.

Adaptive Behavior (Skill Behavior)

·      The adaptive behavior in general refers to the way in which an individual function in his/her social environment.

·      The AAMR (1977) defines adaptive behavior as the effectiveness or degree with which an individual meets the standard of personal independence and social responsibilities expected of his/her environment.

Types Of Skill Behavior

·      Motor

·      Activities of daily living

·      Language

·      Reading and writing

·      Number and time

·      Domestic and social

·      Pre- vocational and money

Problem  Behavior

·      Problem behavior is defined as those behaviors are not age inappropriate, socially not accepted, injurious to self and others and which is interfering teaching learning process.

Types Of Problem Behavior/Mal-Adaptive Behavior

·      Violent And Distructive Behavior Example : tear books

·      Temper Tantrums. Example : screams rolls on the floor .

·      Misbehavior With Others .Example: Pulls object from others

·      Self Injurious Behavior. Example : Head banging

·      Repetitive Behaviors: Example: Rocks body, flapping hands.

·      Odd Behavior. Example: Laughs  or talk to self without reasons.

·      Hyperactive Behaviors  Example: Does not sit at one place for required time .

·      Rebellious Behavior . Example: Refuses to obey command .

·      Anti-Social Behaviors. Example: Steals ,cheats in games .

·      Fears. Example: Fears of place ,person ,animals and object.

In adaptive behavior, people rise to meet challenges in daily life. You might not want to get up and go to work, but you do. You might not want to take medication, but you realize you need these pills for a better quality of life, so you take them. Adaptive behavior is not just doing something you don’t like to do but it is facing challenges and finding ways to cope with needing to do things that you do not prefer.

Sometimes, we find strategies to deal with the things we don’t want to do. For example, you might not want to get up to that alarm to go to work but you know if you do, the reward will be a paycheck. You might find you will change jobs or negotiate a different start time, so you don’t have to wake so early. Some people will go as far as to change jobs, so they can look forward to going to work. Changing your mindset can help as with taking medication. If the medicine helps you and you can see the benefits, you will probably take it. If it comes with side effects, you can ask for a different formulation. The point is, you figure out a way to help yourself through life’s hurdles.

Maladaptive behavior can result when a person just does not see a path to their desired future. This can happen with any chronic illness or major lifestyle change. With maladaptive behavior, self-destructive actions are taken to avoid undesired situations.

One of the most used maladaptive behaviors is avoidance. Everyone uses this behavior at one time or another. This involves not doing something that should be done. It can be avoiding a person, like your healthcare professional, an activity, such as not performing a bowel program, or it can even be a thought such as not recognizing changes due to spinal cord injury. Avoidance becomes maladaptive when your physical or mental health is harmed or in danger of being harmed.

Avoidance seems like a simple solution because we have all used it so we all know how to do it. Which is that we just do not do something we should. However, it does result in anxiety and stress because we know we should be doing the exact thing we are avoiding. Developing a pattern of avoidance can lead to many mental health issues including anger outbursts or internalizing the anger, changes in socialization, lack of appetite, inability to sleep, low self-esteem and depression.

As these mental health issues build, they can convert to include physical components. At first, you might experience weight loss and fatigue.Several medical consequences have been attributed to the stress of avoidance: hypertension, ulcers, headaches, irritable bowel, muscle aches. Even the development of diabetes has been related to stress. Diabetes is at a higher risk for individuals with spinal cord injury as well.

Some individuals will develop maladaptive behavior by starting with avoidance and build into other, more intense maladaptive behavior. Others will just jump right into more detrimental types of maladaptive behavior including destructive behavior towards yourself.

Self-destructive behavior includes self-harm, eating disorders, and substance abuse. Self-harm is the physical destruction of the body that can appear in a variety of ways. Traditionally, self-harm is associated with the cutting of one’s own body. However, this behavior can be demonstrated in a variety of other ways as well. Examples can be pulling out hair, often seen with eyebrows, scratching, or burning. For individuals with spinal cord injury, it can be exhibited by creating, picking or keeping wounds from healing, refusal to follow needed activities such as catheterization, bowel program, or pressure releases.

Self-harm is caused by overwhelming stress, anxiety or depression. It is a coping mechanism as opposed to a compulsion. Occasionally, individuals with spinal cord injury, make a mistake and miss a catheterization time or get delayed in their bowel program. These oversights, although they still can lead to physical consequences, should not be confused with self-harm. We all error sometimes. Self-harm can be a one-time event or a pattern. It is caused by inner turmoil and can be self-punishing.

Eating disorders are a form of maladaptive behavior that cause self-harm. They can result in under or overweight issues which are particularly disastrous for individuals with spinal cord injury as both affect skin integrity, mobility, catheterization and bowel issues, body image and general health. Eating disorders can become diseases such as binge-eating, excessive dieting, bulimia, and attachment of well being to body image.

A person can use eating disorders as a method of gaining control in their life. If a person requires assistance for daily activities, using food can become a measure of control over their body. It can also be a temporary moment of taste pleasure when there is not much other perceived pleasure in life. Eating disorders are a result of stress, conflict, and anxiety which can be a result of spinal cord injury or other life crisis.

Substance abuse is the use of alcohol, prescribed or non-prescribed drugs or a combination to achieve a specific effect. Some people use these substances to numb the anxiety and stress perceived in their lives, others might use the substances for a complete blackout of life. As with other maladaptive behaviors, the goal is to create a false view of life where their problems and issues do not exist.

Substance abuse can lead to addiction which has been described as when the substance reaches a level where everyday life is affected. For some, this can be a dependence on alcohol to dependence on addictive medication. Some addictive substances, especially alcohol have been associated with suicide.

Knowing if someone has maladaptive behavior can be difficult to determine. Fortunately, you can get help from your health professional who can provide an in-office assessment. From that point, they can direct you to the most appropriate treatment plan if needed.

There are several ways to treat maladaptive behavior. A psychotherapist can help you discover the nature of the reason for your behavior as well as strategies to help you confront and deal with it.



5.3         Functional analysis of behaviour



·      To identify the variables of which behavior is a function; to discover "cause-effect ”

relations (Skinner, 1953)


·      Understanding

·      Treatment

·      Prevention

Functional behavioural assessment (FBA) is a precise description of a behaviour, its context, and its consequences, with the intent of better understanding the behaviour and those factors influencing it.

The purpose of the FBA of behaviour is to determine which contingencies maintain an individual‟s problem behaviour.

Approaches to assessment

1) Indirect Assessment

2) Direct Descriptive Assessment

3) Functional (Experimental) Analysis

These approaches differ in terms of the type of data collected and the extent to which environmental events are merely observed or actually manipulated during the course of assessment.

Indirect (Anecdotal) Methods

General Characteristics

·      Focus on circumstances under which behavior occurs

·      Based on informant recall

·      Data: verbal report (interview, checklist, rating scale)


·      No risk to individual  Simplicity (requires little skill)

·      Efficiency (takes 10-30 min to complete)

·      Structured method for gathering information

·      Potentially useful as initial guide to assessment


·      Highly subjective data – guesses

·      Poor reliability and questionable validity

·      Insufficient for treatment development

Suggestions for Implementation

·      Use as preliminary guide only

·      Use multiple, relevant informants

·      Follow-up with functional analysis

Descriptive (Naturalistic) Analysis


·      To identify naturally occurring, observable antecedents and consequences of behavior

 Typical procedure

·      Define target behavior(s) to be observed

·      Specify criteria for antecedent and consequent events

·      Occurrence of B Record A, B, and C

·      Organize A and C clusters

·      Generate hypothesis based on A-C correlations with B


·      Objective and (usually) quantitative data

·      Behavior sampled in relevant settings

·      Identifies correlations: “ When I see X, I also see Y ”


·      Requires lengthy observation under varied conditions (event sampling problem)

·      Typical environment is “ noisy, ” containing many antecedent and consequent events (which events are relevant?)

·      Interpretation must be based on conditional probabilities

·      Naturally occurring consequences may not be reinforcers

·      Effects of intermittent schedules cannot be identified

·      Irrelevant variables may mask relevant ones

·      Outcomes appear to be biased

·      Correlational relations ≠ functional relations

·      Sneeze ” bless you”

Functional (Experimental) Analysis

When descriptive analysis yields ambiguous results, a functional analysis may be conducted to allow systematic introduction and removal of environmental events during predefined test and control conditions.

What are the goals of functional analysis?

a)     Define the problem behavior

One of the first and most important steps when planning to assess and treat someone‟s problem behaviour is to objectively and specifically define that behaviour. A well-defined behaviour is important so the behaviour can be reliably or consistently observed and treatment can be administered as intended.

b)     Identify possible causes of behaviour

General categories of causes include: (i) positive reinforcement or events, objects or sensory stimuli that, when they immediately follow a behaviour, result in an increase in rate of the behaviour (automatic reinforcement is included which refers to the occasions when the behaviour can be maintained by consequences delivered via the behaviour itself) and (ii) negative reinforcement or stimuli or  events (e.g., demands, tasks, internal stimulation, attention)  that, when removed immediately after a behaviour, increase its rate. The function matrix is a useful tool for identifying the possible causes or the ways that a behaviour was reinforced.

c)      Predict when the problem behaviour will occur

Information gathered from functional analysis may allow prediction of the circumstances under which the problem behaviour is likely to happen and alter them in some way to decrease the likelihood of the problem behaviour.

d)     Design effective treatment programmes

Consideration of the possible causal variables for the problem behaviour is important for the selection of effective treatment.  Treatment will vary depending on the functional hypothesis or reason for the problem behaviour.

If one could specify which aspects of a procedure led to more problem behaviour, one should then be able to change the procedure so as to effect a reduction in problem behaviour.

General Characteristics

·      Direct and quantitative observation of behavior

·      Conditions of observation are controlled

·      Comparison between test and control conditions

·      Data: frequency, duration, etc.


·      Provides clear demonstration of cause-effect relations

·      High degree of precision (isolates intermittent or subtle variables)

·      Suggests short-term strategies for behavior management

·      Provides clear basis for treatment development

Challenges to Functional Analysis Methodology

·      Complexity of assessment: It’s too difficult

·      Time constraints: It takes too much time 

·      Setting constraints: I don’t have a controlled setting

·      High-risk behavior:  It’s too dangerous

Functional analysis in action

Typical conditions in which levels of the problem behavior can be measured and compared include:

(a) attention condition wherein reprimands (e.g., “No, don‟t do that”) are delivered after each problem behaviour;

(b) tangible condition wherein a preferred object (e.g., toy, food) that is out-of-reach is given to the child following each problem behaviour;

(c) demand condition wherein a task is presented and following instances of the problem behaviour it is removed for a brief period;

(d) play condition wherein toys are provided, the therapist interacts positively with the child and any instances of the problem behaviour are ignored; and

 (e) alone condition wherein the child is placed in a therapy room alone with no toys available. The alone and play conditions are typically used as a control or comparison conditions with the other conditions (i.e., demand, tangible, attention). These conditions can be conducted in a laboratory situation (analogue) or in the situation where the child‟s problem behaviour naturally occurs (e.g., classroom, home).

One of the most simple model known as A-B-C model is presented below

*      A. What happens immediately BEFORE the behaviour? This is called as ANTECEDENT factors.

*      B. What happens DURING the behaviour?

            This is called as BEHAVIOUR.

*      C. What happens immediately AFTER the behaviour?

            This is called as CONSEQUENCE factors.

Understanding 'Before' (antecedent) factors

*      1. When does the problem behaviour generally occur?

*      2. Are there particular times of the day when the problem behaviour tends to occur more

*      3. With whom does the problem behaviour occur?

*      4. Where does the problem behaviour occur?

*      5. Why did the problem behaviour occur?

Understanding 'During' (behaviour) factors

*      1. How many times does the problem behaviour occur?

*      2. For how long does the problem behaviour occur?

Understanding 'After' (consequence) factors.

*      1. What do people present in the environment exactly do to stop the specific problem behaviour?

*      2. What effect does the problem behaviour have on the given child or others?

*      3. How is the child benefitting by indulging in the problem behaviour?



5.4         Behaviour management techniques: Cognitive and behavioural


Behavior modification means changing human behavior by the application of Conditioning or other Learning techniques. (J.B Watson).           


1. Identification of problem behaviours

2. Statement of problem behaviours

3. Selection of problem behaviours

4. Identification of rewards

5. Recording baseline of the problem behaviours

6. Functional analysis of the problem behaviours

7. Development and implementation of behaviour management programmes

8. Evaluation of behaviour management programmes

Behavioural Techniques In Managing Problem Behaviours

1. Changing the Antecedents:  There are a number of antecedent (before) factors, in the presence of which, behaviour problems may tend to occur more.

These factors may include particular settings, situations, places, persons, times, specific demands placed on the child, task difficulty levels, methods of instructions used by the teacher, sudden change in routine, etc.

If the teacher can identify links between any of these factors and the occurrence of specific problem behaviours, then a simple avoidance, alteration or change of such factors may he sufficient to manage  problem behaviours

2. Extinction/Ignoring: Extinction means removal of attention rewards permanently following a problem behaviour. Extinction is the nonreinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior. This procedure involves ignoring a behavior that is withholding reinforcing attention for a previously reinforced response. In all cases, when an inappropriate behavior is ignored, another behavior, which is appropriate, must be reinforced.

3. Time Out: Time out method includes removing the child from the reward or the reward from the child for a particular period of time following a problem behaviour Ensure that rewards or a rewarding situation is removed following the problem behaviour.

Types of Time Out

Remove the child to an area in the class

Remove the rewarding activity materials

Place the child outside

Head down position

Seclude the child to an isolated room

4. Physical Restraint: Physical restraint involves restricting the physical movements of the child for sometime following a problem behaviour.

5. Response Cost: Another way of decreasing problem behaviours in children is to take away the rewards that the child has earned by performing specific good behaviours.

In other words, this technique involves the child to pay a fine or the cost for indulging in a problem behaviour by giving away some thing or event he has earned from showing desirable behaviours.

Response cost is a procedure in which a specific amount of available reinforcers is contingently withdrawn following a response in an attempt to decrease behavior. Response cost is often used with token economy programs. The response cost must be less than the total amount of number of reinforcers available (i.e., never go in the hole). Response cost procedures are often referred to as “fines.”

6. Overcorrection( RESTITUTION): The use of this technique will not only decrease problem behaviours in children, but also teach appropriate ways of behaving. When this technique is implemented, after the occurrence of a problem behaviour, the child is required to restore the disturbed situation to a state that is much better than what it was before the occurrence of the problem behaviour.

1. Restitutional overcorrection requires the student to correct the effects of his/her misbehavior by restoring the environment to better than its original condition.

2. Positive overcorrection requires the student to practice an appropriate behavior an abundant number of times.

3. Neutral practice overcorrection has a student repeat an action that is neither restitutional nor related to the desired behavior. This often takes the form of contingent exercise.

4. Full cleanliness training requires the student to excessively clean the result of wetting or soiling her/ himself

7. Conveying Displeasure: we use of THIS technique, the teacher is required to give clear verbal commands  expressing displeasure to a child following  occurrence of a specific problem behaviour.

8. Gradual Exposure for Fears: Graduated exposure techniques are especially used to decrease fears in children, either in the school or home setting.

The procedure of graduated exposure involves a step by step gradual exposing of the child to a feared person, place, object or a situation

9. Differential Rewards:

Differential reward of opposite behaviour

Differential reward of other behaviour

Differential reward of low rate Behaviour

Differential reward of alternate behaviors

10. Self-management Techniques:

1. Self observation

2. Self recording techniques

3. Self cueing techniques

4. Self reward techniques

5. Correspondence training

6. Anger control technique


v Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a talking therapy that can help you manage your problems by changing the way you think and behave.

v Therapists or computer-based programs use CBT techniques to help individuals challenge their patterns and beliefs and replace "errors in thinking such as over generalizing, magnifying negatives, minimizing positives "with "more realistic and effective thoughts, thus decreasing emotional distress and self-defeating behavior.

v The origins of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) dates back to the Behavioral Therapies and their development in the early 20th century, and correlate with the development of Cognitive therapy in 1960, and consequently resulted in their fusion. Their effectiveness has been demonstrated by numerous clinical studies in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Aaron Beck is considered to be the father of Cognitive Therapy, and his focus was initially on targeted treatment of depression. He thought that in depression there is a distortion of thoughts that is mainly focused on the negative perception of themselves, negative interpretation of the environment and the negative expectations in the future [1]. High efficacy of Cognitive Bihevioral Therapy is demostrated in the treatment of depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depressive and anxiety disorders in children.

v Basic principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy include cognitive restructuring, in which therapist and patient work together to change disruptive thinking patterns. It includes behavioral activation, in which patients learn to overcome obstacles to participating in enjoyable activities. Also, it focuses on specific, present problems and it is time-limited, economic and goal oriented. In individual or group sessions, problems (in terms of behaviors, emotions and thinking) are identified. Approach is educational. The therapist uses structured learning experiences that teach patients to monitor and write down their negative thoughts and mental images. The goal is to recognize how those ideas affect their mood, behavior, and physical condition. Therapists also teach important coping skills, such as problem solving and scheduling pleasurable experiences. Patients are expected to take an active role in their learning, and that is why they are given homework assignments at each session which is one of the main basics in cognitive-bihevioral therapy. If you had learned in school multiplication table for only an hour a week, you would probably still wondering how much is 6x7. Same is with psychotherapy; achieving the goal would take a very long time if all what person is doing is thinking about techniques and topics taught only one hour a week. Therefore, Cognitive Behavioral therapists assign patients homework and encourage them to practice techniques that they are taught.


Step 1: Identify critical behaviors

Step 2: Determine whether critical behaviors are excesses or deficits

Step 3: Evaluate critical behaviors for frequency, duration, or intensity (obtain a baseline)

Step 4: If excess, attempt to decrease frequency, duration, or intensity of behaviors; if deficits, attempt to increase behaviors.


v CBT is based on the concept that your thoughts, feelings, physical sensations and actions are interconnected, and that negative thoughts and feelings can trap you in a vicious cycle

In CBT, problems are broken down into five main areas:

Situations, thoughts, emotions, physical feelings, actions.

v CBT is based on the concept of these five areas being interconnected and affecting each other. For example, your thoughts about a certain situation can often affect how you feel both physically and emotionally, as well as how you act in response


v If CBT is recommended, you'll usually have a session with a therapist once a week or once every two weeks. The course of treatment usually lasts for between five and 20 sessions, with each session lasting 30-60 minutes.

v During the sessions, you'll work with your therapist to break down your problems into their separate parts – such as your thoughts, physical feelings and actions

v You and your therapist will analyse these areas to work out if they're unrealistic or unhelpful and to determine the effect they have on each other and on you. Your therapist will then be able to help you work out how to change unhelpful thoughts and behaviors.

v After working out what you can change, your therapist will ask you to practice these changes.

v This should help you manage your problems and stop them having a negative impact on your life.


v Pragmatic – it helps identify specific problems and tries to solve them

v Highly structured – rather than talking freely about your life, you and your therapist discuss specific problems and set goals for you to achieve

v Focused on current problems – it's mainly concerned with how you think and act now rather than attempting to resolve past issues

v Collaborative – your therapist won't tell you what to do; they'll work with you to find solutions to your current difficulties


CBT has been shown to be an effective way of treating a number of different mental health conditions. In addition to depression or anxiety disorders, CBT can also help people with:

v obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) 

v panic disorder

v post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

v phobias

v eating disorders – such       as anorexia and bulimia

v sleep problems – such as insomnia problems related to alcohol misuse


v It may be helpful in cases where medication alone hasn't worked

v it can be completed in a relatively short period of time compared to other talking therapies

v The highly structured nature of CBT means it can be provided in different formats, including in groups, self-help books and computer programs

v It teaches you useful and practical strategies that can be used in everyday life – even after the treatment has finished


v You need to commit yourself to the process to get the most from it

v Attending regular CBT sessions and carrying out any extra work between sessions can take up a lot of your time

v It may not be suitable for people with more complex mental health needs or learning difficulties – as it requires structured sessions

v It involves confronting your emotions and anxieties – you may experience initial periods where you're anxious or emotionally uncomfortable

v It focuses on the individual’s capacity to change themselves (their thoughts, feelings and behaviors) – which doesn't address any wider problems in systems or families that often have a significant impact on an individual’s health and wellbeing

v Some critics also argue that because CBT only addresses current problems and focuses on specific issues, it doesn't address the possible underlying causes of mental health conditions, such as an unhappy childhood


v Exposure therapy is a form of CBT particularly useful for people with phobias or obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)

v Exposure therapy involves starting with items and situations that cause anxiety, but anxiety that you feel able to tolerate. You need to stay in this situation for one to two hours or until the anxiety reduces for a prolonged period by a half.

v Your therapist will ask you to repeat this exposure exercise three times a day. After the first few times, you'll find your anxiety doesn't climb as high and doesn't last as long

v You'll then be ready to move to a more difficult situation. This process should be continued until you have tackled all the items and situations you want to conquer.



5.5         Modifying behaviours of children with special needs in inclusive and special classroom


One of the biggest challenges parents face is managing difficult or defiant behavior on the part of children. Whether they’re refusing to put on their shoes, or throwing full-blown tantrums, you can find yourself at a loss for an effective way to respond.

For parents at their wits end, behavioral therapy techniques can provide a roadmap to calmer, more consistent ways to manage problem behaviors problems and offers a chance to help children develop gain the developmental skills they need to regulate their own behaviors.

ABC’s of behavior management at home

To understand and respond effectively to problematic behavior, you have to think about what came before it, as well as what comes after it. There are three important aspects to any given behavior:

Define behaviors

The first step in a good behavior management plan is to identify target behaviors. These behaviors should be specific (so everyone is clear on what is expected), observable, and measurable (so everyone can agree whether or not the behavior happened).

An example of poorly defined behavior is “acting up,” or “being good.” A well-defined behavior would be running around the room (bad) or starting homework on time (good).

Antecedents, the good and the bad

Antecedents come in many forms. Some prop up bad behavior, others are helpful tools that help parents manage potentially problematic behaviors before they begin and bolster good behavior.

Antecedents to AVOID:

Antecedents to EMBRACE:

Here are some antecedents that can bolster good behavior:

Creating effective consequences

Not all consequences are created equal. Some are an excellent way to create structure and help kids understand the difference between acceptable behaviors and unacceptable behaviors while others have the potential to do more harm than good. As a parent having a strong understanding of how to intelligently and consistently use consequences can make all the difference.

Consequences to AVOID

EFFECTIVE consequences:

Consequences that are more effective begin with generous attention to the behaviors you want to encourage.

By bringing practicing behavioral tools management at home, parents can make it a much more peaceful place to be.

Classroom  management involves encouraging students to change their behaviours. However, before and during any change process the following Ethical Issues Must Be Considered.

Ethical decision screens when thinking about changing behaviour

Model appropriate leadership

The student must see the educator’s behaviour as positive. To do this, the educator must develop a relationship of genuine caring, trust, and respect with the child. The child will then model her/his behaviour after the educator’s behaviour.


Because self-discipline is the goal of behaviour management, teachers should encourage it in the classroom. By building respect and trust, the child will begin to feel the need to control her/his own behaviour. This respect and trust can be fostered by positive interactions.

Match experiences to the student

Children should have positive experiences in school. An experience is usually positive if it is within the developmental stage of the child and has meaning for the child.

Show empathy

The educator needs to consider the child’s problems objectively to deal with them. Emotion inhibits objective thinking, while empathy allows us to view the problem from different perspectives.

High expectations

Teachers must communicate to children their belief in each child’s abilities and demand the highest achievement from them.

Freedom and independence to function

Children should be allowed as much independence to function as possible. If limits need to be established to avoid undo failure or injury students should be allowed to experience the logical consequences of their actions. This must be done to develop self-reliance and independence.

Principle of normalization

The child must be allowed to function in as normal an environment as possible.

Principle of fairness

The intervention must be fair and allow the child to succeed in school. If consequences are applied they must be appropriate with regard to the degree of the offense.

Principle of respect for dignity and worth of the individual

The intervention must provide the student an opportunity to learn or improve skills to master control over the student’s environment without degrading the individual as a human being.

A continuum of behaviour management interventions

The educator should use the intervention which least restricts the child in the classroom, yet is still effective. Over-restricting the child imposes on the student’s rights within the classroom. (See continuum of strategies)

Behaviour change must be rational and well planned

The behaviour must be a behaviour which hampers the child’s performance in the classroom, the educator must have a rationale for changing the behaviour, and follow a behavioural change procedure that will result in the implementation of a behavioural strategy that is prescriptive to the behaviour and does not violate the ethical considerations or due process. See SAT, MDT, and Behaviour change steps.


The educator should be sure to notify those involved with the child of the management procedures and obtain consent to proceed. This practice will help avoid conflict over the behaviour intervention.

Impartiality. Students expect an instructor to treat everyone in the class equally. Few professors intentionally favour certain students over others, but it is probably impossible not to like some students more than others. Differences in liking may foster differences in interactions, such as allowing certain students to dominate discussions. Even subtle differences in how students are treated may lead to perceptions of partiality where none exist. To avoid giving the impression of partiality, carefully monitor your behavior and interactions with all students. 

·      Respect. Respect involves treating students politely. Ridiculing a student or calling a student's comment “stupid” is inappropriate in all circumstances. Students expect an instructor to listen to, carefully consider, and give thoughtful replies to their ideas when they challenge the instructor’s views. An instructor who is perceived as impatient or demeaning, either directly through comments or indirectly through tone of voice, facial expressions, or posture, loses students' respect.

·      Concern for students. Students expect their instructors to care about them and their academic performance. You can demonstrate such concern by learning and using students' names, talking to them before and after class, carefully answering questions, and inviting students who appear to be having problems with the course to discuss those problems and potential solutions. You also can express concern by giving due consideration to student complaints, taking remedial action when the complaints are valid, and carefully explaining your position when the complaints are not valid. 

·      Integrity. Integrity means being consistent and truthful, and explaining your policies, procedures and decisions and why they are necessary, so that their fairness can be judged and understood. For example, an attendance policy may be justifiable because attendance is correlated with increased learning and better grades. Explaining the educational goals of various types of assignments also can be effective. You also can demonstrate integrity by delivering promised rewards and penalties, and admitting ignorance when appropriate. 

·      Propriety. Propriety means acting in a socially acceptable manner that does not offend students' sensibilities. Students expect you to follow the rules when interacting with them.