Unit 4: Curriculum for students with ID

4.1.  Curriculum Designing for Students with Intellectual Disability

4.2.  Personal, social, functional academic and occupational, recreational skills

4.3.  Curriculum development for pre-primary, primary and secondary levels

4.4.  Curricular adaptation -accommodation, modification for inclusive settings

4.5.  Curriculum evaluation process.












4.1         Curriculum Designing for Students with Intellectual Disability


The curricular content of children with Intellectual disability requires a different focus. Due to the intellectual impairment, they cannot study like the other disabled children upto high school or beyond and hence the curricular focus here should be function oriented. This demands content as well as the process planned differently, considering each child with the unique characteristics, individualized educational programming (IEP) is required for each retarded child with the objective to achieve independence in his functioning in the age appropriate activities.

There are different approaches used and found successful for students with Intellectual disability.

 Ideally, in special education, as in regular education, the curriculum should be derived from an analysis of the needs of society. Therefore, a good curriculum should focus on imparting social competencies to children with Intellectual disability so that they may perform as independently as possible in the community. With the trend toward integrated education, the curriculum for mildly retarded children is generally an adaptation of the regular education curriculum with a focus on vocational education. This training allows for appropriate job placement of the child when he/she grows up. These curricula include functional reading, writing, arithmetic, time, travel money and other related skills. Generalization or transfer of classroom learning to application of skills in natural environments is an important aspect of these curricula, as Intellectual disability children often do not automatically generalize the skills they have learned.
Curricula used with children who are moderately and severely retarded emphasize training is functional activities. The content of the curricula are chosen from among the various tasks that have a high probability of being required in day-to-day living. These tasks include personal, social, occupational and recreational activities. Academic skills are incorporated when the children have the ability to learn them.
Behavioural approaches for increasing desirable Behaviours and decreasing undesirable Behaviours are currently in practice in most of the special educational units. The methods used include task analysis, modeling, shaping, chaining, prompting and fading and reinforcement. For the past two decades, behaviour modification techniques, based on operant conditioning principles have been widely popular and implemented in many school systems all over the world. These applications included aversive and non-aversive techniques. The use of aversive techniques were highly criticized as unethical. As rightly pointed out by Kazdin (1975) the target behaviour may be eliminated by aversive techniques, the consequences resulting directly form punishment may be worse than the original behaviour. Considering such views, `gentle teaching’ was introduced. This included concepts and processes such as ecological manipulation, errorless learning, environmental engineering, teaching which considers modality strengths, and individualization and flexibility with the learner and staff. Special teachers in India are updated with such current concepts and trends through periodic in-service training workshops, to enable them to adapt teaching methods suitably.



4.2         Personal, social, functional academic and occupational, recreational skills


Personal skills
Personal skills include eating, drinking, toileting, bathing, dressing and grooming. However, to perform these activities, other skills such as motor (gross motor and fine motor) and language and communication skills are also required. Take the example - take water from the water filter and drink. The girl has to walk to the kitchen, identify glass and take the glass, open the tap (finger grasp) fill the water, close the tap and drink. Another example is when the family goes to their friend’s house and the girl feels thirsty, she has to tell her mother (communication) that she needs water. Therefore, we need to remember that skill areas are not isolated, but they all overlap.

Eating and drinking

Specific skill related points


Toileting skills: Teaching of toileting skills should happen at appropriate time in school and at home.

Bathing skills: Teaching of bathing skills is generally done at home by parents/family members as it may not be possible for teachers to teach bathing skills in day care centers. Inform parents/family members on the following points:

Brushing: This activity can be taught in schools after lunch to those children who have difficulty in brushing teeth.

Dressing skills: Dressing activities include removing and wearing clothes including unzipping/zipping, unbuttoning, buttoning, unhooking and hooking and tying lace/ribbon.

Grooming skills: Applying oil, combing hair, applying powder, fixing bindi (in case of girls) wearing chappal/shoes are all activities to be taught under grooming. Generally, by the time children are 8-9 years, they learn all the above mentioned activities by themselves through observational learning. However, children with Intellectual disability  need to be taught all the activities using special methods.

1.     Ribbons of 3 colours fixed on undo grill.

2.     Wool of three colours.

3.     Wool of same colour.

4.     False hair.

5.     Plaiting other’s hair.

Social skills:
One of the characteristics of children with Intellectual disability  is inappropriate behaviours which make them look different in groups. In addition, due to lack of proper socializing skills with the age appropriate groups, they tend to play with younger children. Therefore, they need to be taught the manners group behaviour in various situations and environments.

Functional skills 

Functional skills are those skills a student needs to live independently. An important goal of special education is for our students to gain as much independence and autonomy as possible, whether their disability is emotional, intellectual, physical, or a combination of two or more (multiple) disabilities. Skills are defined as functional as long as the outcome supports the student's independence. For some students, those skills may be learning to feed themselves. For other students, it may be learning to use a bus and read a bus schedule. We can separate the functional skills as:

Life Skills

The most basic of functional skills are those skills that we usually acquire in the first few years of life: walking, self-feeding, self-toileting, and making simple requests. Students with developmental disabilities, such as Autism Spectrum Disorders, and significant cognitive or multiple disabilities often need to have these skills taught through modeling, breaking them down, and the use of Applied Behavior Analysis. The teaching of life skills also requires that the teacher/practitioner complete appropriate task analyses in order to teach the specific skills.

Functional Academic Skills

Living independently requires some skills which are considered academic, even if they do not lead to higher education or the completion of a diploma. Those skills include:

Occupational skills

To prepare an individual with Intellectual disability for independent living, training in overall development of skills is important. Occupational skills include activities such as cooking, shopping and house keeping. However, the curriculum content at primary level will be minimum when compared to secondary and prevocational level.
Shopping and travel skills are interrelated, ie., if one has to go for shopping, he/she has to go using the right mode of travel to the respective place. Therefore, a teacher can select related curriculum content in both the areas for teaching. For example, if students are taught to read and write numerals from 1-5. The teacher can teach identifying and naming rupee notes/coins and using money to buy things which costs within Rs.5. Reading price tags, selecting item and paying bills, all with your support.

Involve in domestic activities such as washing plate, glass and tififn box, wiping the table, sweeping the floor, dusting separating vegetables and placing them into boxes/plastic bags.

Arranging for breakfast, lunch, dinner by placing plates, glasses and serving water, can form part of the routine.

Recreational skills

In the past, western societies have tended to devalue people with disabilities and as a result, these individuals were less likely to be accepted and have valued social roles in their community. Negative stereotypes such as being regarded as: a dependent person, an object of charity, an object of ridicule and pity, a menace or an object of dread were commonly expressed in the literature of that time. This dominant view that people with disabilities were seen as helpless victims was based on their functional limitations, and as a result needed to be effectively excluded from mainstream society. This became known as the ‘functional limitations’ perspective on disability which supported the view that people with disabilities were a ‘problem’ and in need of ‘cure or care’.

Perhaps nothing reveals so much about individuals as how they choose to play - how they invest their time and energy for leisure time. Leisure is that time free from demands of school, work, or required activities of daily living. Everyone needs regular recreation that develops skills, promotes good health, relieves stress, facilitates social interactions, and provides a general joy for living.

The physiological benefits of recreation participation were derived from studies where people engage in physical activity of some kind (e.g., exercise, cycling, swimming, walking, jogging, running, hiking, weight lifting, etc). Specific results from involvement in a physical recreation activity are an increased lung capacity, reduced resting heart rates and lower blood pressure levels. Other benefits consist of decreased body fat mass, increased lean body mass, increased muscle strength, and improved structure and function of connective tissues (ligaments, tendons, cartilage) and joints. Weight-bearing and strength-building activities help sustain bone mass and reduce the incidence of trauma-induced fractures (Paffenbarger, Hyde, & Dow, 1990). Moderate physical recreation activities are known to reduce the symptoms of mild or moderate depression and anxiety through improved self-image, social skills, and mental health (Taylor, Sallis, & Needle, 1985). Noted psychological benefits of recreation activity are as follows:

Involvement in recreation activities releases stress and tension from the perils of society. Braum (1991) recalls the findings of researchers that state,"relaxation tends to alleviate many of the symptoms of stress. Activities that fill leisure time, performed within a group, strengthen social support ties known to negate stress" (p. 407). The idea of choice in leisure presents opportunities where one can recreate.



4.3         Curriculum development for pre-primary, primary and secondary levels


Curriculum development for pre-primary (2-6 years)

Early intervention is an early stimulation and enrichment programme for infants and young children with varying types and degrees of disability. It is primarily used for children with developmental disabilities offering services which will enhance the development of young children. In developing countries, where health services are lacking in urban slums and deprived rural populations and where poverty is widespread, such early intervention services form the basis of ensuring proper care and management of at-risk infants.

The early years are the most significant years for human growth, development and learning of all children including those with special needs due to disability conditions. The all-round capacities that emerge in 3 to 6 years age group are the pre-requisites for later success in school and life.

National Council of Educational Research and Training has framed the Pre school curriculum that aim at helping the teachers, administrators, policy planners and other stakeholders to provide good quality preschool education to children.

Encouraging the development of children with disabilities through early intervention minimises learning difficulties and accelerates child development. It also reduces the expenses by minimising the need for special education services. Early intervention includes a system of services tailored to individual needs, that aim to help children directly and also through providing support to their parents. Early intervention can be offered in several forms:

Inclusion provides an opportunity to treat children with disabilities equally and focus on their abilities. This empowers them with adequate facilities, infrastructure and personal support. Hence,

Children between the age group of 6 to 9 years are considered as belonging to the primary level. Due to the intellectual impairment, children with Intellectual disability  show delays in all developmental areas, which reflects in learning academics and deficits in adaptive behaviour. Hence curricular emphasis should be learning skills and behaviours that are necessary to function independently as far as possible and in a socially acceptable manner.

Curriculum for the primary group is an extension of that of the pre-primary class. Therefore emphasis will continue to be on the areas like self-help, language, communication, social, functional academics, domestic/occupational and recreational skills. The extent of coverage of activities to be stressed at primary level again depends on the exposure and achievement at the pre-school level by the children and also the activities have to be age appropriate. For example, an 8 year old non-retarded child is not expected to cook a meal but can help mother in laying table, serving food or arranging utensils in the shelf. In case of academic skills, we need to follow a sequence. For example, after a student learns to do addition sums, subtraction sums are taught.

Personal skills
Personal skills include eating, drinking, toileting, bathing, dressing and grooming. However, to perform these activities, other skills such as motor (gross motor and fine motor) and language and communication skills are also required. Take the example - take water from the water filter and drink. The girl has to walk to the kitchen, identify glass and take the glass, open the tap (finger grasp) fill the water, close the tap and drink. Another example is when the family goes to their friend’s house and the girl feels thirsty, she has to tell her mother (communication) that she needs water. Therefore, we need to remember that skill areas are not isolated, but they all overlap.

Social skills:
One of the characteristics of children with Intellectual disability  is inappropriate behaviours which make them look different in groups. In addition, due to lack of proper socializing skills with the age appropriate groups, they tend to play with younger children. Therefore, they need to be taught the manners group behaviour in various situations and environments.

Occupational skills

To prepare an individual with Intellectual disability  for independent living, training in overall development of skills is important. Occupational skills include activities such as cooking, shopping and house keeping. However, the curriculum content at primary level will be minimum when compared to secondary and prevocational level.

Children between the ages of 10 to 13 or 14 years are grouped under secondary level. Once the primary group of children achieve 80% of the curriculum content in the primary level, they can be promoted to secondary level. In case of children with low ability the teachers have to continue teaching in those tasks which the students have not achieved. They are grouped as Primary II. Though the same domains/core areas as in the primary level are included in curriculum at secondary level, the content and complexity of the activities is increased keeping in mind the learning characteristics of children at this level. This is also noticed in general education. For example, in every class, students have to study the subjects English, regional language, Hindi, mathematics, science and social studies/environmental science. The complexity of content in each subject is increased in every class keeping in mind the learning characteristics of children. Similarly, for children with Intellectual disability also, the curriculum content in each domain/core area is the extension of curriculum at primary level.

Personal skills
With systematic planning and teaching, the high ability group of children with Intellectual disability learn to eat and drink, dress, brush and bathe on their own by the time they reach secondary level. However, some of them may require minimum assistance in bathing and dressing. At this level the following curriculum content needs to be covered as an extension of primary curriculum.

The curriculum content should cover activities such as eating of different types of breakfast items and sweets appropriately (eg. Eating gulab jamon/rasagulla/payasam with spoon, taking a small piece of chapatti with right hand and taking a small quantity of curry/dal and eating), showing appropriate eating/table manners when children participate in social functions and cafeteria, carrying water, filing water in bottles, folding manageable clothes, bed covers/sheets, cutting pictures, pasting, folding papers and inserting them into covers and the other routine activities. Never underestimate student’s ability. Expose him to various activities and assist in learning.

Social skills
To be accepted as a member of the group and part of the community, one needs to have smooth interpersonal relationships for which adequate language and communications skills are required. Often children with Intellectual disability fail to interact with groups meaningfully in an acceptable manner. It is observed that most of the children with Intellectual disability have limited vocabulary and have difficulty in speaking in sentences, understanding and following instructions and narrating incidents in a sequence. Various activities should be planned to develop these skills at secondary level.

Acceptable behaviour towards persons of opposite sex needs to be taught subtly and constantly during social situation at this state. Do’s and dont’s should be clearly specified to avoid embarrassment. This training should be continued into prevocational stage also.

Occupational skills
At this level the children start helping parents/family members in many of the household activities. Performing these activities require application of functional reading, writing and arithmetic skills. For example, when the student is asked to measure two cups of rice, he should have learned counting as a part of number skills which he applies while performing the activity. In case of low ability children (Primary II – 7-14 years, Prevocational-II – 15-18 years) measuring of two cups of rice can be an activity for teaching counting. Identifying and reading labels on edible items/writing a shopping list are other examples. Similarly activities such as washing clothes, moping floor, wiping, storing, or packing requires knowledge of functional academics and fine motor skills.



4.4         Curricular adaptation -accommodation, modification for inclusive settings


Inclusion is “a process of addressing and responding to the diversity of needs of all learners through increasing participation in learning, cultures and communities, and from education. It involves changes and modifications in content, approaches, structures and strategies, with a common vision which covers all children of the appropriate age range and a conviction that is the responsibility of the regular system to educate all children.” (UNESCO, 2005) Inclusion is the full acceptance of all students and leads to a sense of belonging within the classroom community. By the practice of educating all children together, children with disabilities have the opportunity to prepare for life in the community, and the same practice also helps the society to make the conscious decision to operate according to the social value of equality. Inclusive education is the best method of promoting wider social acceptance, peace and cooperation.

A strategy describes how the goals will be achieved by the resources. Strategy is important because the resources available to achieve these goals or usually limited. Strategy generally involves setting goals, determining actions to achieve the goals and mobilizing resources to execute the actions.

There are various strategies for curriculum adaptation discussing below

Instructional strategies 

·      Instructional strategies may be defined as instruction in how to learn and perform." Learning strategies help students learn and perform by providing them with a specific steps for: 

·      approaching new and difficult task

·      guiding thoughts and actions

·      completing task in a timely and successful manner

·      thinking strategically

·      Learning strategies may include organizing materials, memorizing information, taking notes, reading text, and taking tests.

Inclusive classroom strategies 

·      While planning the students in regular Classrooms, their age is to be taken consideration rather than their academic level to foster friendship. 

·      The teachers should often evaluate both the groups with the same tasks. 

·      The general students and students with special needs are paired together common assignments to build cooperation. 

·      Games and problem solving make the classes more active. 

·      Curricular, co-curricular and extra - curricular activities are made community oriented. 

·      Giving teaching tasks to the students and helping them become part of learning activity. 

·      If she/he is co-teaching, commit to planning at least once a week with your co-teaching partner and determine your respective teaching responsibilities.

6 Steps to Adapting Curriculum and Instruction

1.     Choose the activity.

2.     Identify your curricular goals for this activity. What do you want the children to learn, to experience, to be engaged in?

3.     What is your instructional plan for this activity? How do you want to present the information to the children?

4.     Identify the children in your classroom who might need adaptations for this activity.

5.     Based on your knowledge of each child’s goals and skills, choose and appropriate adaptation or group of adaptations. Start with the most natural, least intrusive adaptations.

6.     Observe and adjust your adaptations as needed during the activity.

                        * A change in the type of adaptation used,

                        * A change in the amount of adaptation needed.

                        * A change in the number of adaptation used.

Use a variety of team teaching methods, including 

·      Interactive teaching: Teachers alternate role of presenting, reviewing, and monitoring instruction. 

·      Alternate teaching: One person teaches, reteaches, on enriches a concept for small group, while the other monitors or teach the remaining students. 

·      Parallel teaching: Students are divided into mixedability groups, and each co-teaching partner teaches the same material to one of the groups. 

·      Station teaching: Small group of students rotate to various stations for instructions, review, and/or practice. 

·      Be aware of students needs and provide the accommodation listed in your students individualized education programmers.

UDL (Universal design to learning)

UDL is an approach to designing curriculum including instructional goals, methods, materials, and assessment that are flexible enough to accommodate learner differences. According to Meyer and Rose (2005), “UDL is built on the premise that barriers to learning occur in the interaction with the curriculum they are not inherent solely in the capacity of the learner. UDL represents a shift in how educators look at learner differences. It emphasizes the need for a curriculum that can adapt to student needs for a curriculum that can adapt to student needs rather than requiring learners to adapt to an inflexible curriculum.” The UDL is increasingly drawing the attention of researchers and educators as an effective solution for filling the gap between learner ability and individual differences. UDL framework can be used to proactively design lessons that address learner variability. Using UDL guidelines, teachers can integrate flexible options and supports that ensure that standards – based lessons are accessible to a range of learners in their classrooms. To understand what UDL is, it helps to understand what it’s not. The goal of UDL is to use a variety of teaching methods to remove any barriers to learning and give all students equal opportunities to succeed. It’s about building in flexibility that can be adjusted for every student’s strengths and needs. Teachers can create a more nurturing, equitable and inclusive space by using different strategies. These includes the 3 major principles / guidelines such as: first one is Engagement: which is for purposeful, motivated learners, stimulate interest and motivation for learning, Second one is Representation: for resourceful, knowledgeable learners, present information and content in different ways, Third one is Action & Expression: For strategic, goal – directed learners, differentiate the ways that students can express what they know as well as reflecting diversity in teaching and supporting the social justice goals of fellow teachers. So it is to improve and optimize teaching and learning for all people based on scientific insights in to how humans learn. It capitalizes in new technologies and electronic devices and provide a new way of looking at students with disabilities.


Functional reading is defined as a student’s actions or responses resulting from reading the printed word.
The following are the goals of reading for persons with Intellectual disability .

The primary goal is the development of their ability to read for protection – sign boards, labels, directions and so on (concept of survival).

The second goal is teaching them reading for information and instruction – newspaper, telephone book, job application and so on.
The third goal is giving training in reading for pleasure – magazines, comics, story books.

All persons with Intellectual disability may not be able to achieve all the three goals. Some may achieve one of the goals and some may achieve all of the three goals It depends on the severity/level of Intellectual disability i.e., the ability/capacity to understand and learn the tasks. Further, children to become effective readers they must be able to.

        see a clear and unblurred image projected on the flash card and hear the sound of the letters and words uttered (auditory-visual sensory input).
distinguish one symbol from another and recognize these differences consistently (auditory-visual perception).

        remember the sounds or images of the symbols in sequence (auditory-visual memory).

        relate these symbols to meanings based on experience and synthesize the visual and auditory clues with the meaningful words for integrative learning (language symbolization).

Teaching Reading
Various approaches have been used by professionals in teaching reading to children with Intellectual disability. Among them whole word approach is extensively used.

Whole word approach (sight word/paired reading)
Whole word approach is a widely used method in teaching functional reading. Through the whole word approach, the students learn to recognize and read words and later receive decoding instructions (to spell). A variety of strategies have been used in teaching sight word vocabulary. Recent attention has been focused on the imagery level of the word to be learnt. High imagery words are usually concrete and include nouns such as ball, mango, fan and house. Low imagery words include abstract terms such as beautiful, good and have. In some instances, high imagery can be provided for low imagery words by using the word in context. For example, consider the word “sour”, “I ate mango. It is sour”, becomes more concrete and students can remember better. Pairing of words with concrete objects and/or pictures will facilitate development of a high imagery level in the students. Here, the concrete word `mango’ helps in learning the abstract word `sour’. Following are the steps to be followed while using whole word approach. When we are teaching any concept to children, we follow three steps – matching/grouping, identification and naming.

Error analysis in generalization

The sustained ability for generalization does not just lie in analysis of success achieved, but also in that of the errors committed. When a student performs consistently a certain task after structured training, he is exposed to a non-trained condition, which will have certain similarities to the trained conditions. When the learnt response is performed in a non-trained condition, errors may occur. The teacher should be sensitive to the factors that contribute to the occurrence of the error and the ways in which they can be prevented. For example, we teach `3’ and help the child to discriminate `3’ from 5, 7, 13, 30, 53 and so on. The student understands that when the symbol ‘3’ appears all by itself, only then it is called ‘3’. On a clock dial, when the child is asked to identify 1, he is right when he shows 1 after 12 but not at 10, 11 and 12 as the latter have accompanying numbers with them. This approach would limit to prevent errors from occurring right in the beginning during the acquisition stage itself, thereby making generalization easier. This helps in differentiating similar looking words and similar sounding words.
Teacher should


One of the important modes of communication is written expression. Writing demands eye hand coordination, motor coordination, sense of direction and recognition of symbols pictures/letters/numbers/words/ punctuation and so on). Some writing tasks demand horizontal writing (left to write as in writing words) and some demand vertical writing as in arithmetic (addition, subtraction) and some demand a combination of both as in statement sums.

Teaching Writing
Teaching writing involves four stages. They are:

1.     Tracing

2.     Joint dots (if needed)

3.     Copying

4.     writing from memory (including learning spelling).


We are in daily contact with situations which require the use of number skills. For example, when we buy half a dozen bananas from the fruit vendor we glance at the bunch to check whether it contains six bananas or not. We use number skills in various settings such as at home, in community and at work place - how many plates to place on the table, which bus number to take to reach work place, how much is the bus fare, how long it takes to reach office and so on.

Strategies for arithmetic instruction

Before beginning with numbers, make sure, the child is aware of pre-math concepts such as more-less, far-near, heavy-light, tall-short-long and so on.

The following are the points to be considered while planning and teaching arithmetic skills.

        The content should be arranged in a sequential order for which the task analytic approach
is applied.

        Concrete materials should be used while teaching to provide meaning for the concepts.

        The selection of materials should be such that they can be used meaningfully both inside and outside the school environment.

        The programme should be structured in such a way that there is a gradual transition in teaching concepts moving from concrete to semi-concrete and abstract levels.

        Instruction must be practical and functional with special emphasis given to a social and
vocational orientation.

        Sufficient practice should be given to deal with the concepts in variety of ways to ensure

        Additional opportunities should be provided to generalize the skill to a variety of experiences to note similarities and to establish associations and relations among their experiences.

        Practical experiences and situations should be provided for the application of numerical
skills. However, care should be taken in planning the application of number skills to the real life experiences that they should have relevance to the world in terms of the individual child’s needs.

        A programme must be flexible enough to meet the individual needs of students.



4.5         Curriculum evaluation process.


Curriculum evaluation is an essential phase of curriculum development. Through evaluation a faculty discovers whether a curriculum is fulfilling its purpose and whether students are actually learning.

Curriculum evaluation is an essential component in the process of adopting and implementing any new curriculum in any educational setting. Its purpose is to decide whether or not the newly adopted curriculum is producing the intended results and meeting the objectives that it has set forth. Another purpose of curriculum evaluation is to gather data that will help in identifying areas in need of improvement or change.

Why is Curriculum Evaluation Necessary?

There are several parties, or stakeholders, interested in the process and results of curriculum evaluation.

Purpose of curriculum evaluation

Educational prepares future generation to take their due place in the society. It becomes essential that substandard educational goals, materials and methods of instruction are not retained but up-dated in consonance with the advances in social cultural & scientific field. It is also important to ascertain how different educational institutions and situations interpret a given or prescribed curriculum. Hence, arises the need for curriculum evaluation.

Curriculum evaluation monitors and reports on the quality of education. Cronbach (1963) distinguishes three types of decisions for which evaluation is used.

1. Course Improvement  : deciding what instructional material and methods are satisfactory and where changes are needed.

2. Decisions about individuals : Identifying the needs of the pupil for the sale of planning of instruction and grouping, acquainting the pupil with his own deficiencies.

3. Administrative regulations : Judging how good the school system is, how good individual teachers are. The goal of evaluation must be to answer questions of selection, adoption, support and worth of educational materials and activities. It helps in identifying the necessary improvements to be made in content, teaching methods, learning experiences, educational facilities, staff-selection and development of educational objectives. It also serves the need of the policy makers, administrators and other members of the society for the information about the educational system.

Objectives of Curriculum Evaluation

1.     To determine the outcomes of a programme.

2.     To help in deciding whether to accept or reject a programme.

3.     To ascertain the need for the revision of the course content.

4.     To help in future development of the curriculum material for continuous improvement.

5.     To improve methods of teaching and instructional techniques.