Unit 1: Nature of Education:

1.1.      Meaning and definition of education;

1.2.      Aims of Education: character building, education as means of livelihood, for social efficiency social aim, cultural development and transmission;

1.3.      Education in 21st century in India;

1.4.      Formal, Informal and Non-Formal Education;

1.5.      Functions of Education—Nation Building, National Integration, Social Integration Bringing about peace and harmony in the society and inculcating values and ethos;










1.1         Meaning and definition of education;



Education, like philosophy is also closely related to human life. Therefore, being an important life activity education is also greatly influenced by philosophy. Various fields of philosophy like the political philosophy, social philosophy and economic philosophy have great influence on the various aspects of education like educational procedures, processes, policies, planning and its implementation, from both the theoretical and practical aspects.


Etymological Meaning of Education

Etymologically , the word ‘Education’ has been derived from different Latin words.

a)   ‘Educare’   which means   ‘to bring out’   or   ‘to nourish’ .

b)   ‘Educere’   which means   ‘to lead out’   or   ‘to draw out’ .

c)   ‘Educatum’   which means   ‘act of teaching’ or ‘training’.

d)   ‘Educatus’   which means   ‘to bring up, rear, educate’.

e) ‘ Educatio ‘ which means   “a breeding, a bringing up, a rearing.”


Education in the largest sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mindcharacter or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledgeskills and values from one generation to another.

Definitions of Education

Since time immemorial, education is estimated as the right road to progress and prosperity. Different educationists’ thoughts from both Eastern and Western side have explained the term ‘education’ according to the need of the hour. Various educationists have given their views on education. Some important definitions are:

1.   Mahatma Gandhi : “By Education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in man – body, mind and spirit.”

2.   Rabindranath Tagore : “Education enables the mind to find out the ultimate truth, which gives us the wealth of inner light and love and gives significance to life.”

3.   Dr. Zakir Husain : “Education is the process of the individual mind, getting to its full possible development.”

4.   Swami Vivekananda : “Education is the manifestation of divine perfection already existing in man.”

5.   Aristotle: “Education is the creation of sound mind in a sound body.”

6.   Rousseau: “Education is the child’s development from within.”

Nature of Education

As is the meaning of Education, so is its nature. It is very complex. Let us now discuss the nature of Education:

1.   Education is a life-long process:   Education is a continuous and lifelong process. It starts from the womb of the mother and continues till death. It is the process of development from infancy to maturity. It includes the effect of everything which influences human personality.

2.   Education is a systematic process:   It refers to transact its activities through a systematic institution and regulation.

3.   Education is development of individual and the society :   It is called a force for social development, which brings improvement in every aspect in the society.

4.   Education is modification of behavior:   Human behavior is modified and improved through educational process.

5.   Education is purposive:   Every individual has some goal in his life. Education contributes in attainment of that goal. There is a definite purpose underlined all Educational activities.

6.   Education is training:   Human senses, mind, behavior, activities; skills are trained in a constructive and socially desirable way.

7.   Education is instruction and direction:   It directs and instructs an individual to fulfill his desires and needs for exaltation of his whole personality.

8.   Education is life:   Life without Education is meaningless and like the life of a beast. Every aspect and incident needs education for its sound development.

9.   Education is continuous reconstruction of our experiences:   As per the definition of John Dewey Education reconstructs and remodels our experiences towards socially desirable way.

10.   Education helps in individual adjustment:   A man is a social being. If he is not able to adjust himself in different aspects of life his personality can’t remain balanced. Through the medium of education he learns to adjust himself with the friends, class fellows, parents, relations, neighbors and teachers etc.

11.   Education is balanced development:   Education is concerned with the development of all faculties of the child. It performs the functions of the physical, mental, aesthetic, moral, economic, spiritual development of the individual so that the individual may get rid of his animal instincts by sublimating the same so that he becomes a civilized person.

12.   Education is a dynamic process :   Education is not a static but a dynamic process which develops the child according to changing situations and times. It always induces the individual towards progress. It reconstructs the society according to the changing needs of the time and place of the society.

13.   Education is a bipolar process :   Education is a bipolar process in which one personality acts on another to modify the development of other person. The process is not only conscious but deliberate.

14.   Education is a three dimensional process:   “All Educations proceeds by participation of the individual in the social consciousness of the race.” Thus it is the society which will determine the aims, contents and methods of teachings. In this way the process of Education consists of 3 poles – the teacher, the child and the society.

15.   Education as growth:   The end of growth is more growth and the end of Education is more Education. “An individual is a changing and growing personality.” The purpose of Education is to facilitate the process of his/her growth.

Therefore, the role of Education is countless for a perfect society and man. It is necessary for every society and nation to bring holistic happiness and prosperity to its individuals.

Scope of education

Scope means range of view out look field or opportunity of activity operation and application. Education has a wider meaning and application.


·      Educational philosophy: Philosophy of education covers aims of education, nature of education, importance of education, function of education its very old and essential part of education.


·      Educational psychology: Main aim of education is the development of child. Psychology helps to understand the child better and development of child with respect of physical, mental, emotional, social adjustment,  individual difference, personality, thinking, reasoning, problem solving.


·      Educational sociology: A child lives in the society so its important for him to know about the society the nature of society, type of society, interdependence between culture and society.


·      History of education: It is also important to know background, origin, development, growth and aspect of the subjects. And also education system method of teaching during ancient period, medieval period, British period and modern period.


·      Economics of education: For the growth of business and market the world class economical education is important for each and important.


·      Method of teaching: In ancient time the pupil were passive listeners but now they actively participate with the teacher in the process of education. So the skill and proficiency of difference teaching methods needs to be developed.


·      Educational administration and supervision: The educational institution and the system has to be supervised  and administrated smoothly so that the process of education goes well. Regulation of fund, democratic administration, autonomy, personnel management etc.


·      Problems of education: This scope includes problems of  teaching management of education and also suggestion and remedies for it.


·      Population education: Viewing at the undesirable growth of population, an awareness is created through population education.


·      Environmental education: Ecological in balances have drown the attentions of intelligence today. So looking at the environmental problems study of environment education has great importance.




1.2         Aims of Education: character building, education as means of livelihood, for social efficiency social aim, cultural development and transmission;


Education is a continuous lifelong process. The aim of education is to provide direction to the process of education. There are different aims of education like social aim, vocational aim, cultural aim, moral aim, spiritual aim, intellectual aim, etc.

Character building

Character is a mental quality and it should be built very cautiously by education. T. Raymond opines, “Education finds its real meaning and value when its aim is character-building”. Bertrand Russel emphasizes that the formation of character is the chief aim of education. Herbart, the great educator of nineteenth century says, the whole work of education may be summing up the concept of “morality”.

M.K.Gandhi viewed, “Character building is the aim in education I would try to develop courage, strength, virtue, the ability to forget oneself in working towards great aims. I should feel that if we succeed in building the character of the individual, society will take care of itself”.

Swami Vivekananda, Dayanand Saraswati and all other philosophers of the east also emphasized the development of character as the aim of education. Character, essentially, includes all the best and noble qualities which can be better cultivated by education. Morality or moral qualities include tolerance, truthfulness, honesty, courtesy, loyalty, justice, sincerity, endurance, courage or fortitude, fellow feeling, freedom, self-control, non-violence, forgiveness, will power, conviction, temperance, etc.

These should be fostered by a suitable programme of education. Therefore, S. Radhakrishnan says, “The troubles of the whole world including India are due to the fact that education has become a mere intellectual exercise and not the acquisition of moral and spiritual values”.

Social Aim
Human being is considered to be a social animal. Education can make him to be a productive member of the society. Every individual is born with some potential. It is the education that helps the individual to meet his potential. Society is considered to be the result of interaction among the individuals either in small or large group. Education ensures peaceful existence of the society. By education, students realize the importance of social values like justice, fair play, healthy competition and harmony, etc. Education makes the individual accountable to the community and the nation. With social aims, education gives direction to the society in its development.

It is admitted that a good citizen is an asset for the nation. The development of nation depends upon the nature of the citizens and in order to be a good citizen, certain qualities are essential ingredients—a sense of social responsibility and social duty, a love for freedom, power of independent thinking, a spirit of national service, a sense of sacrificing one’s personal interest for the larger interests of the community and nation, courage to express freely, free from fear, and a knowledge of socio-political system i.e. socio-political consciousness.

Therefore, these values should be fostered in the minds of children and individuals through the planned and organised system of education. Plato, the author of the treatise on the system of government, “The Republic’ writes, “Education for citizenship is the only education which deserves the name; that other sort of training, which aims at the acquisition of wealth or bodily strength, or mere cleverness apart from intelligence and justice, is mean and illiberal and is not worth to be called education at all.”

Vocational Aim

Process of education makes the individual to be capable of his livelihood, so that he can useful and lead a productive life in the society. The individual respects the dignity of labour. This aim makes him self-reliant and sufficient and fills the gap between education and vocation. Vocational aim has utilitarian dimension too. Education provides knowledge and skills to an individual in a fruitful manner.

In the modern times, it is felt that education should have its preparatory value to enable individuals to earn his livelihood or to make both ends meet in order to live happily and successfully. It is the economic self-sufficiency of a person which makes him a worthy and contributing citizen.

The advocates of this aim say that all the knowledge that the child has gained, all the culture the child has acquired in the school will be of no use, if he cannot make both ends meet as an adult member of the community. Therefore, education should aim at imparting knowledge, skill, and information to the pupils in order to make them self-reliant; not to be a drag or parasite upon others.

As such, vocational bias in education is absolutely necessary for enabling pupils to be productive members in the society.

Education with the vocational aim will prepare each individual for an occupation which will suit to his needs, abilities, interests and attitudes. Vocational aim of education is also superscripted as ‘Bread and Butter, aim’, ‘Blue Jacket Aim’ and ‘White collar Aim’. M. K. Gandhi says, “True education ought to be for the boys and girls a kind of insurance against unemployment”.

Cultural Aim

Education has a cultural aim also. By undergoing education, child becomes civilized and cultured. An educated person develops aesthetic sense and respects other's culture. Knowing the culture includes gaining or acquiring knowledge about existing beliefs of a society, art, morals, laws, etc.

Culture is defined as complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, tradition, folk ways, religion, literature and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. M.K. Gandhi attaches his importance upon this cultural aspect more than the literary aspect when he said, “culture is the foundation, the primary thing………………. It should show itself in the smallest details of your conduct and personal behaviour, how you sit, how you walk, how you dress, etc. Inner culture must be reflected in your speech, the way in which you treat visitors and guests, and behave towards are another and towards your teachers and elders”.

Culture comprises vast array of inter-related knowledge, skills, values and goals. A cultured person is he whose personality is refined, whose aesthetic tastes are developed, who lives a socially Useful life, who is socially efficient, who appreciates ideas and values, who understands the best thought of the community and who not only assimilates the rich experiences of the race but also utilize these experiences in a meaningful way for the development of the society.

Culture is essential for refinement of physical, intellectual, moral and aesthetic parts of personality of an individual. Culture also expands one’s outlook, sharpens one’s interest and fosters an acceptable behaviour of the individual.
Spiritual Aim

Education is necessary to promote spirituality among the individuals. He raises himself above self-interest and works for the welfare of others, which is called to be the state of self-actualization. He not only preaches right or wrong, but also practices it in his life.

The idealistic philosophers contend that the chief aim of education is to develop the spiritual side of an individual. The sole aim of education should be the maximum development of spiritual potentialities of the individual. In turn, this development gives the real strength to human soul and mind. Regarding the importance of education for spiritual side of the individual.

Dr. S. Radhakrishnan says, “The aim of education is neither national efficiency nor world solidarity, but making the individual feel that he has within himself something deeper than intellect, call it spirit if you like”.

Shri Aurobindo views, “The chief aim of education should be to help the growing soul to draw out that in itself which is best and make it perfect for a noble cause”. Thus, the central aim of education should be the development of spirituality in men.

Inculcation of spiritual values in the minds of individuals by the programme of education is the need of the hour to save the humanity from plunging into the morass of hat redness, selfishness, corruption, aggression, violence, chaos, disorder, narrow-mindedness, malevolent spirit, tensions, fears, conflicts, brutality, suspicion, destruction and disaster.

Pristine glory and pride of the nation can be brought back by education, by inculcating the spiritual values or truths in children and by propelling them to practice in their day to day lives. Because it is said that the taste of pudding lies in eating it In short, spiritual education will bring happiness, order and contentment in the world by cultivating spiritual faiths in the minds of the individuals.

All-round Development Aim of Education:

It is also known as harmonious development aim of education. It refers to harmonious development of the physical, intellectual, emotional, spiritual, moral and aesthetic sides of human personality. It is with this harmonious development of all aspects of human nature that he will be able to play his part well in life and achieve success in all fields of human life.

This aim was first advocated by Rousseau who said education as “the process of development into an enjoyable, rational, harmoniously balanced, useful and hence natural life”. Other important supporters of this aim are Pestalozzi, Ross and M.K. Gandhi. Pestalozzi regards, “Education is natural, harmonious and progressive development of man’s innate powers”.

By harmonious development he means the education of 3 H’s—Head, Heart and Hand. Ross views, “Harmonious development means the intellectual, religious, moral and aesthetic development of the child”.

Complete Living Aim of Education:

The eminent naturalistic philosopher, educationist and biologist of the nineteenth century Herbert Spencer expounded complete living aim of education. He said that education should bring about the whole-some development which enables an individual to face all problems of life in all spheres and solve them with great courage and conviction.

He asserted that the chief task of education is to enable the individuals to prepare for life and the art of life consists of right ruling of conduct in all directions under all circumstances. In this connection he says that education must tell us “in what way to treat the body; in what way to manage out affairs; in what way to bring up our family; in what way to behave as a citizen; in what way to utilize those sources of happiness which nature supplies— how to use all facilities to the greatest advantage of ourselves and others”.

So, education should acquaint us with the laws and ways of complete living. He writes in his treatise “on Education”, “To prepare us for complete living is the function which education has to discharge, and the only mode of judging any educational course is to judge in what degree it discharges such function”. He identified certain activities which have bearing upon complete living according to their respective values in order of priority.

1. Activities relating to self-preservation directly are those subjects like physiology, hygiene, physics, chemistry which help in self-preservation. Activities related to self-preservation indirectly include subjects like Mathematics, Biology, Sociology and Physics.

2. Activities pertaining to rearing and bearing of offspring’s are the subjects like physiology, domestic science, psychology which help in understanding the principles of child’s growth and development.

3. Activities relating to social and political duties include subjects like history, political science and economics which help the individuals to perform socio-political duties so that one can live properly.

4. Activities relating to utilization of leisure time profitably include subjects like art, music, poetry, painting, literature, drama etc. which serve the end by satisfying leisure time needs.




1.3       Education in 21st century in India;


Today, people have realized that education translates into opportunity and hope for the future. They have understood the fact that the ability to get an education, to foster creativity and curiosity, to seek answers will allow mankind to continue to grow.

The education culture in India has reached interesting times. Teachers are more qualified, students are more aware, schools have better facilities, fee structures have gone over the roof. Modern-day education is certainly aided by computers, projectors, the internet, and much more. Everything that can be simplified has been made simpler. Technology and science have explored every aspect of life. Internet provides implausible knowledge, and there is no end to it.

Education in India includes primary, secondary and higher education. Elementary education goes on for 8 years, secondary and senior secondary education goes on for 4 years. Higher education in India starts after passing the higher secondary education, and post-graduation courses are generally of two to three years of duration

Goal of modern education:

The goal of modern education is to focus on ensuring that children would be problem solvers, decision makers, and enablers. Students need to leave school with life skills that help them navigate challenges even if they don't know the solutions to them. Most importantly they need to be comfortable to work with people around them who have different backgrounds and life experiences collabratively.

There is almost no field of pursuit left which is unidimensional or individualistic. Even if you take the most extreme example of a sportsperson pursuing an individual sport such as tennis or atheletics, they need to interface with psychologists, trainers, big data technologists etc and work together as a team.

Skill-based education is the need of the future

Education, broadly speaking, is not just teaching the prescribed syllabus but opening the mind to multiple possibilities, imbibing life skills and preparation for being entrepreneurial, in every walk of life. Entrepreneurship in the classical sense has been focused on venture creation, but venture management and scaling is also a part of the definition, per say, now.

The future is individual learning, customized consumption and smaller learning spaces where students can learn in a fluid environment and can learn from each other - peer learning. The teacher-student relationship will face a dynamic change, when flipped classrooms become a norm rather than an exception in schools.

The ideas will be beyond the textbook and more aligned to the application of knowledge rather than assessment of retention. Flexible learning paths, focus on imparting life skills, student centric learning methods and use of technology are bringing in the concept of "Education 4.0".

Engaging modern teaching methodology

Modern teaching methodology is focused on thinking and analytical skills. The transferable abstract thinking skills and reflective observation in students helps in developing future careers. The process involves the use of project making, field trips, and facing challenges in a controlled environment. It is the bedrock of future success as it bridges the gap between learning and doing. The discrepancy between theory and practice is overcome. The learning curve is enhanced, and the methodology is instrumental in producing demonstrable mindset and behavioural changes.

It lays the foundation to holistic educational practices that create an environment that facilitates life-long learning, engages the student's natural curiosity and boosts retention dramatically. The assessment system is also stronger and helps evaluate the core strengths and areas of improvement for every child on a personal level with the use of modern methodology.

Use of technology in the learning program

Technology has enabled improved interaction between communities, and educationists should look at tech as an enabler of greater methodology and new age pedagogy, not as a substitute to the educator. The use of technology to make learning more natural is the key to the future. When our daily lives are empowered by tech, there is no reason that teaching-learning should be deprived of it.

The gap remains when students are taught using only traditional methods, and the workplace is fraught with the use of technology. The student often fails to adapt and flounders, leading to a spectre of being a misfit in the employment jungle. The use of technology in classrooms has led to many positive changes in the learning curve of students. AR/VR, AI, Blockchain is the present, not just the future.

The amalgamation of Artificial Intelligence, Augmented Reality, Automation, Robotics, Virtual Reality, digital marketing, and so forth has revolutionized the education sector. Schools are incorporating laboratories built for these disciplines. The use of technology has fuelled the impact on interdisciplinary learning and research-based innovation.




1.4         Formal, Informal and Non-Formal Education;


Education goes beyond what takes places within the four walls of the classroom. A child gets the education from his experiences outside the school as well as from those within on the basis of these factors. There are three main types of education, namely, Formal, Informal and Non-formal.

At around the same time there were moves in UNESCO toward lifelong education and notions of ‘the learning society’ which culminated in Learning to Be (‘The Faure Report’, UNESCO 1972). Lifelong learning was to be the ‘master concept’ that should shape educational systems (UNESCO 1972:182). What emerged was the influential tripartite categorization of learning systems. It’s best known statement comes from the work of Coombs with Prosser and Ahmed (1973):

·      Formal education: the hierarchically structured, chronologically graded ‘education system’, running from primary school through the university and including, in addition to general academic studies, a variety of specialised programmes and institutions for full-time technical and professional training.

·      Informal education: the truly lifelong process whereby every individual acquires attitudes, values, skills and knowledge from daily experience and the educative influences and resources in his or her environment – from family and neighbours, from work and play, from the market place, the library and the mass media.

·      Non-formal education: any organised educational activity outside the established formal system – whether operating separately or as an important feature of some broader activity – that is intended to serve identifiable learning clienteles and learning objectives.

The distinction made is largely administrative. Formal education is linked with schools and training institutions; non-formal with community groups and other organizations; and informal covers what is left, e.g. interactions with friends, family and work colleagues. 

Formal Education

Formal education or formal learning usually takes place in the premises of the school, where a person may learn basic, academic, or trade skills. Small children often attend a nursery or kindergarten but often formal education begins in elementary school and continues with secondary school.

Post-secondary education (or higher education) is usually at a college or university which may grant an academic degree. It is associated with a specific or stage and is provided under a certain set of rules and regulations. 

The formal education is given by specially qualified teachers they are supposed to be efficient in the art of instruction. It also observes strict discipline. The student and the teacher both are aware of the facts and engage themselves in the process of education.

Examples of Formal Education

Characteristics of formal education

Advantages of Formal education:

Disadvantages of Formal education:            

Informal Education

Informal education may be a parent teaching a child how to prepare a meal or ride a bicycle.

People can also get an informal education by reading many books from a library or educational websites.

Informal education is when you are not studying in a school and do not use any particular learning method. In this type of education, conscious efforts are not involved. It is neither pre-planned nor deliberate. It may be learned at some marketplace, hotel or at home.

Unlike formal education, informal education is not imparted by an institution such as school or college. Informal education is not given according to any fixed timetable. There is no set curriculum required. Informal education consists of experiences and actually living in the family or community.

Examples of Informal Education

Characteristics of Informal Education

Advantages of Informal Education

Disadvantages of Informal Education     

Non-formal Education

Non-formal education includes adult basic education, adult literacy education or school equivalency preparation.

In nonformal education, someone (who is not in school) can learn literacy, other basic skills or job skills.

Home education, individualized instruction (such as programmed learning), distance learning and computer-assisted instruction are other possibilities. 

Non-formal education is imparted consciously and deliberately and systematically implemented. It should be organized for a homogeneous group. Non-formal, education should be programmed to serve the needs of the identified group. This will necessitate flexibility in the design of the curriculum and the scheme of evaluation.

Examples of Non-formal Education

Characteristics of Non-formal Education

Advantages of Non-formal Education

Disadvantages of Non-formal Education



1.5         Functions of Education—Nation Building, National Integration, Social Integration Bringing about peace and harmony in the society and inculcating values and ethos;


Nation building

In order to make India a front-line country and economy, the government has launched schemes such as Digital India and Make in India, which require the education system — especially higher education — to gear itself to the task of realising these missions. The pursuit and success of these goals will largely depend on the availability and commitment of the talented and trained human resource. It is here that the role of education is most crucial.

The government has started a number of initiatives to underscore the need and importance of research and innovation in institutions of higher learning. In 2016, it announced the Institution of Eminence scheme to make 10 private and 10 public universities world-class by providing them the much-needed autonomy and freedom to grow, develop and flourish in the next 10 to 15 years. This scheme, among other things, aims to provide these institutions with complete academic, financial, administrative and regulatory autonomy so as to raise their competitiveness at the international level. All centrally-funded institutes and those in the private sector have the opportunity to take part in this nation-building exercise.


In view of promoting national integration in November 1960, the Education Ministers of all the States met to consider this matter. The problem of National Integration was considered in all its gravity. It was then decided that a committee be constituted under the leadership of Dr. Sampurnananda for promoting national and emotional unity in the country.

The committee apart from considering other aspects of the problem, devoted thought to the role of education in promoting national integration. The Committee was set up in May 1961 and it began it’s; work soon thereafter. Education and the Recommendations of National and Emotional Integration Committee .The Committee recommended that the aim of education should be merely to give or exchange knowledge, but also to bring about the all round development of personality of the students.

Through the medium of education, the qualities of sacrifice and tolerance should not be evolved in the student behaviour so that, the feeling of national unity may be fostered.


The important recommendations of Committee as follows:

(i) Recognition of Education Institutions: Recognition should j be granted only to those educational institutions which do not practiced discrimination on the grounds of caste, creed, religion, clan etc.

(ii) Basis of Admission: The basis of admission to educational I institutions should be the merit of student and not caste, clan, religion, class etc.

(iii) School Uniform: The Uniform of students in every school should be identical.

(iv) Oath to be taken by the students: Every year, students should be required to take oath twice to devote themselves to the service of their country and countrymen. The oath was to the effect that —" India is my country, all Indians are my brothers and sisters. I love my country. I am proud of its glorious traditions and that I will always strive to make myself worthy of my country."

(v) National Anthem: Students should be taught the meaning of our national anthem and sing properly in chorus.

(vi) Respect for the National Flag: Students should be taught the importance of the national flag and to show due respect to the national flag.

(vii) Celebration of National Days: Students and teachers in co-operation with other members of the Community should celebrate such national days as August 15, January 2ft October 2 etc..

(viii) Organization of lectures of National Unity: The gathering organized for the various activities and purposes of school should be utilized for laying emphasis upon national integration.

(ix) Exhibition of Films and Organizing Tours: The exhibition of films depicting various aspects of national development and national Unity. Organizing tours to places of historical importance.

(x) School Project: Project should be initiated in schools for the specific purpose of acquainting students with their country. These projects should increase knowledge about various parts of the country and thus stimulate love for the country.

(xi) Open Air Theater: At least four times in a year, play should be staged in schools for the benefit of students. The themes of these plays should be ancient India, contemporary India, and unity at the time of freedom movement and the promotion of national integration.

(xii) Reorganization of the Curriculum: The Curriculum of schools should be organized on the basis of modern India's democratic and secular values.

(a) Primary Level:

Importance should be laid on prayer meeting, singing national songs telling stories of great-men, folk-song, patriotic song and social studies.

(b) Secondary Level:

Priority should be given to moral and ethical education, Co-curricular activities, knowledge of languages and literature and social studies.

(c) University Level:

Special emphasis should be placed upon the various social science, languages, literatures, culture and art.

Social integration

Education unifies the individuals in society and create the sense of solidarity among them. It helps the individuals and groups to cooperate with one another and find a common ground for social life. Nations are built because of education because it unifies people into an organized unit.

For a society to work, functionalists say, people must subscribe to a common set of beliefs and values. As we saw, the development of such common views was a goal of the system of free, compulsory education that developed in the nineteenth century. 

Socialization refers to a process by which individuals acquire a personal identity and learn the knowledge, language, and social skills required to interact with others. Again, students don't only learn from the academic curriculum prepared by teachers and school administrators. They also learn social rules and expectations from interactions with others. Students in America receive rewards for following schedules and directions, meeting deadlines, and obeying authority. They learn how to avoid punishment by reducing undesirable behaviors like offensive language. They also figure out that to be successful socially, they must learn to be quiet, to wait, to act interested even when they're not, and to please their teachers without alienating their peers.

Cultural Transmission

Besides socialization, another significant manifest function of school is the transmission of cultural norms and values to new generations. Schools help to mold a diverse population into one society with a shared national identity and prepare future generations for their citizenship roles. Students are taught about laws and our political way of life through civic lessons, and they're taught patriotism through rituals such as saluting the flag. Students must also learn the Pledge of Allegiance and the stories of the nation's heroes and exploits. Because America is a capitalist nation, students also quickly learn the importance of both teamwork and competition through learning games in the classroom as well as activities and athletics outside the classroom.

The prime concern of education is to evolve the good, the true and the divine in man so as to establish a moral life in the world. It should essentially make a man pious, perfect and truthful. The welfare of humanity lies neither in scientific or technological advancements nor in acquisition of material comforts. The main function of education is to enrich the character. What we need today more than anything else is moral leadership founded on courage, intellectual integrity and a sense of values.

Since education is a powerful instrument of social change and human progress, it is also a powerful tool to cultivate values in an individual. Therefore all the educational institutes have greater responsibility to impart learning and cultivation of values through education.

For inculcating values many educationists have suggested different ideas such as

Further to cultivate values among the new generations we are to design a curriculum from out of our accumulated cultural heritage

Importance of Value Education

Value Education awakens curiosity, development of proper interests, attitudes, values and capacity to think and judge about oneself. It helps in Promoting Social and Natural Integration.

Objectives of Value Education

Value education should aim at the development of values of the following type.

Value Education and India

Value education is rooted in Indian philosophy and culture and ingrained in every tradition of Indian culture. The Vedas and Upanishads form the source of inspiration for value education. In the Vedic period, in Ashram system of education, the Guru insisted his pupil to follow certain values throughout his life.

University education commission 1948-49 mentioned the various aspects of morality as: loyalty, courage, discipline, self-sacrifice and spirituality.

The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid special emphasis on the following values in the formation of character of the students:

Ways to make value education more effective

There are several ways to make value education more effective. Firstly, the moral awareness should be endorsed to orient the progress in science & technology towards the welfare of mankind. Secondly, common values should be re-discovered to unite human beings with the general decline of traditional values. Thirdly, teachers pass values to the students both consciously and unconsciously through their conduct in and out of class rooms. Therefore the need for a consciously planned value education program is obvious to establish a formal learning. Fourthly, tudents might face more complicated decision making situations about issues involving values. They should be helped in developing the ability to make proper choices in such situations through value education. Fifthly, increase in Juvenile delinquency is a crisis to youth who under goes the process of personal growth. In such situation value education assumes a special significance.

Inculcation of values in Educational Institutions

In school, children are members of a small society that exerts a tremendous influence on their moral development. Teachers serve as role model to students in school; they play a major role in inculcating their ethical behaviour.

At the same time, peers at school may also diffuse boldness about cheating, lying, stealing, and consideration for others. Though there are rules and regulations, the educational institutions infuse the value education to the children in an informal way. They play a major role in developing pro-social behaviour in children.

The most common steps which can be taken in educational institutions to inculcate values include:

Teaching Accountability

The children should be encouraged to be accountable for their own actions and should learn to respect and treat others kindly.

Playing Role model

The teachers are the first role model to the children outside their family. When the children sees the model showing concern for others, motivating them for their good deeds and cooperating and helpful with their academic issues, the children learn them by observing and imitate it with fellow peers.

Teaching Basic morals and values

The children are taught basic morals and values in school. They should be taught by emphasizing the idea through many activities, stories and tales, which will encourage them to engage in more helping behaviours.


The teacher should appreciate the children for developing pro-social behaviour, especially for any specific action they have done to help others.

For Children with weaker moral development

Children’s ability to develop a relationship with peers is critical to their wellbeing. These children have difficulty in understanding social or nonverbal cues and they lack the ability to reason. The teachers play a role in helping these rejected children learn to listen to peers and “hear what they say” instead of trying to dominate peers.

Neglected children are helped to attract and hold their attention from peers. They are taught to ask questions, listen, and help them to establish interest groups or clubs where they integrate in a positive way.

Value Education through Schools

School is the basic stage in the process of socialisation and value education takes place at school level as the child is exposed to friends, teachers, syllabus and various extra-curricular activities.

Further, values cannot be taught like abstract subjects like history, science or math. However, they can be inculcated only through situations deliberately planned while teaching the subjects. For example, National Movement can be taught in such a way that it leads to inculcate the values of patriotism, secularism, universal love and tolerance etc. Similarly, World History can help to inculcate values of Liberty, equality and fraternity {French Revolution}, Fundamental Rights and equality {American Revolution}; Science can help to inculcate values of scientific temper, appreciation towards laws of nature; Indian Civics can help to inculcate values of respect to constitution, respect for democracy, secularism, integrity and unity of the country, social, political and economic justice etc. Further, math can help in inculcating the values of honesty and integrity; Geography and environment can help to inculcate values of respect for other’s culture, and world is one family {Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam}.

At the same time, teachings from the biographies of the great and noble leaders also inculcate the inspiring values among the students and people at large. For example, Mahatma Gandhi’s insistence on truth, non-violence and satyagraha teaches the basic human values.

Last but not the least, the education about constitution, particularly preamble; fundamental rights and duties gives out what values should be fostered through education.