Unit 4: Educational Provisions in India

4.1.     Indian constitutional and education: Directive Principles, Fundamental Rights and Duties, Constitutional Provisions on Education;

4.2.     Acts and Provisions: Free and compulsory education as fundamental rights (article 21A of 2002) and RTE Act 2009 and Amendments; Educational provisions enshrined in RPWD Act, 2016;

4.3.     Various Education Commissions since Independence: The University Education Commission (1948-49), the Secondary Education Commission 1952 -53, Kothari Commission report 1964- 66;

4.4.     National Education Policy 1986, Plan of Action 1992 and National Education Policy 2020;

4.5.     Equality of opportunity in educational institution and inclusive education at different levels: elementary, secondary and higher education;













4.1         Indian constitutional and education: Directive Principles, Fundamental Rights and Duties, Constitutional Provisions on Education;


Part IV of the Indian Constitution deals with Directive Principles of our State Policy (DPSP).

The provisions contained in this Part cannot be enforced by any court, but these principles are fundamental in the governance of the country and it shall be the duty of the State to apply these principles in making laws.

The concept of Directive Principles of State Policy was borrowed from the Irish Constitution. While most of the Fundamental Rights are negative obligations on the state, DPSPs are positive obligations on the state, though not enforceable in a court of law.


(1) The State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice, social, economic and political, shall inform all the institutions of the national life.
(2) The State shall, in particular, strive to minimise the inequalities in income, and endeavour to eliminate inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities, not only amongst individuals but also amongst groups of people residing in different areas or engaged in different vocations.


The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice, on a basis of equal opportunity, and shall, in particular, provide free legal aid, by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way, to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities.


The State shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement, and in other cases of undeserved want.


The State shall endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.


The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.

Fundamental rights and duties are the basic rights of an Indian Citizen in the Indian Constitution. These fundamental duties and rights apply to all the citizens of the country irrespective of their religion, gender, caste, race, etc.

Defined in part 3 of the Indian constitution, fundamental rights are the basic human rights of all the citizens of India. They are to be followed by all, irrespective of religion, place of birth, race, creed,  gender, or caste. Fundamental rights are enforced by the courts and may possess some specific restrictions. Mentioned below are the 6 important fundamental rights derived from the Indian constitution- 

1.     Article 14 – 18: Right to Equality 

2.     Article 19 – 22: Right to Freedom

3.     Article 23 – 24: Right Against Exploitation

4.     Article 25 – 28: Right to Freedom of Religion

5.     Article 29 – 30: Cultural and Educational Rights

6.     Article 30: 35 Right to Constitutional Remedies

1. Articles 14-18: Right to Equality

These articles talk about equal rights for all the citizens of the country irrespective of their caste, class, creed, gender, place of birth, or race. It says that there shall be equal opportunities with regard to employment and other aspects.

These articles also work towards the abolition of orthodox practices that have been taking place in the country like, untouchability, etc.

2. Articles 19-22: Right to Freedom

This is one of the most vital rights in the country whose foundation is based on Democracy. The constitution of India says that the citizens of the country have freedom in various regards. The freedom rights in the Indian Constitution include freedoms of -:

1.     Expression

2.     Speech

3.     Assembly without arms

4.     Association

5.     Practicing any profession

6.     Residing in any part of the Country

However, these rights are subjective. This further implies that the state has the right to impose restrictions on these rights depending upon the situation.

3. Articles 23-24: Right against Exploitation

These articles talk about the exploitation of humans and their rights. It prohibits any activities that encourage child labor, human trafficking, and other forms of forced labor. This article also prevents the state from imposing any compulsory service for public purposes.

Also, while making such compulsions, the state shall not discriminate against anyone on the basis of caste, creed, gender, etc.

4. Articles 25-28: Right to Freedom of Religion

India, being a secular country, consists of people from varied religions and faiths and therefore, it becomes of utmost importance that we and the constitution of Indian support freedom of religion. Under these articles, the state can be prevented from making the laws that

1.     Might be associated with a specific religious practice.

2.     Opening Hindu religious institutions of a public character.

5. Articles 29-30: Cultural and Educational Rights

These are the articles that work towards protecting the rights of cultural, religious, and linguistic minorities by aiding them to preserve their heritage and culture. The state is supposed to have no official religion.

These articles grant all the citizens of the country the right to worship any religion of their choice. Under these articles, the state does not hold the right to discriminate against any educational institution on the basis of it being a minority-run institution.

6. Articles 30-35: Right to Constitutional Remedies

These articles bind all the previously mentioned as this right makes sure that all the other fundamental rights are not being violated in any case. If any citizen of the country feels that their rights are being violated, they have the right to approach the court and demand justice.

Under these articles, the supreme court also holds the power of issuing writs against activity that it might find unsuitable.

Herein, the parliament holds the power control the rights that are being given to –

1.     Army personnel

2.     Bureaucrats

3.     Members in charge of maintenance of public order


The difference between fundamental duties and fundamental rights has been explained in table below-;



These are mentioned in Part III of the Indian Constitution in articles 12-35.

These are mentioned in Part IV A of the Indian Constitution in the article 51A.

They were taken from the Constitution of the USA.

They were borrowed from the Constitution of the former Soviet Union or USSR.

These can be controlled in conditions that are subject to basic nature.

They can be controlled in any condition.

They are political and social in nature.

These are political, social, and economic in nature.

Fundamental Rights can be enforced by the courts.

Fundamental Duties cannot be enforced by the courts. 

Not all citizens have the liberty to enjoy Fundamental Rights, for example, the Indian Army.

Fundamental duties are extended to all citizens of the nation. 


Fundamental Duties of Indian Citizens 

Predominantly defined as the moral obligations of the Indian citizens the fundamental duties mentioned in the Indian constitution propagate a spirit of patriotism as well as promote unity amongst the citizens of the country. We have 11 fundamental duties which are mentioned in part IV-A of the constitution along with the Directive Principles. These duties are a vital part of the Indian constitution but are not enforceable by the law. Unlike fundamental rights, every citizen is suggested to abide by the fundamental duties. Let us now explore the 11 fundamental duties of our constitution- 


Fundamental Duties 


Abide by the Indian Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Anthem and the National Flag


One must cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired the national struggle for freedom


Uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India


Defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so


Promote harmony and spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities and to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women


Value and preserve the rich heritage of the country’s composite culture


Protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes rivers, and wildlife and have compassion for living creatures


Develop scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform


Safeguard public property and abjure violence


Strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement


Provide opportunities for education of his child or ward between the age of six and fourteen years


Constitutional Provisions for Education in India

The Indian constitution provides specifies provisions for education in the following major areas of education:




Right of free and compulsory education



Right to education



Education for women

15(1) (3)


Promotion of education and economic interests of SC, ST and other weaker sections



Religious education

25, 28(1)(2)(3)


Education of minorities, protection of interests of minorities



Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions



Instruction in mother-tongue at the primary stage



Promotion of Hindi



Education in union territories



Fundamental duty to provide the opportunity for education




4.2         Acts and Provisions: Free and compulsory education as fundamental rights (article 21A of 2002) and RTE Act 2009 and Amendments; Educational provisions enshrined in RPWD Act, 2016;


The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 inserted Article 21-A in the Constitution of India to provide free and compulsory education of all children in the age group of six to fourteen years as a Fundamental Right in such a manner as the State may, by law, determine. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which represents the consequential legislation envisaged under Article 21-A, means that every child has a right to full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards.

Article 21-A and the RTE Act came into effect on 1 April 2010. The title of the RTE Act incorporates the words ‘free and compulsory’. ‘Free education’ means that no child, other than a child who has been admitted by his or her parents to a school which is not supported by the appropriate Government, shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education. ‘Compulsory education’ casts an obligation on the appropriate Government and local authorities to provide and ensure admission, attendance and completion of elementary education by all children in the 6-14 age group. With this, India has moved forward to a rights based framework that casts a legal obligation on the Central and State Governments to implement this fundamental child right as enshrined in the Article 21A of the Constitution, in accordance with the provisions of the RTE Act.

The RTE Act provides for the:

Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016

The Act replaces the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995. It fulfills the obligations to the United National Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), to which India is a signatory. 

According to the The Rights of Persons with Disabilities (RPwD) Act, 2016, enacted on 28.12.2016 and came into force from 19.04.2017, Disability has been defined based on an evolving and dynamic concept. .

Salient features of the Act

Disabilities covered

1.     Physical Disability

§  Locomotor Disability

§  Leprosy Cured Person

§  Cerebral Palsy

§  Dwarfism

§  Muscular Dystrophy

§  Acid Attack Victims

§  Visual Impairment

§  Blindness

§  Low Vission

§  Hearing Impairment

§  Deaf

§  Hard of Hearing

§  Speech and Language Disability

2.     Intellectual Disability

§  Specific Learning Disabilities

§  Autism Spectrum Disorder

3.     Mental Behaviour (Mental Illness)

4.     Disability caused due to-

§  Chronic Neurological Conditions such as

§  Multiple Sclerosis

§  Parkinson’s Disease

§  Blood Disorder

§  Haemophilia

§  Thalassemia

§  Sickle Cell Disease

5.     Multiple Disabilities

Duty of educational institutions

The appropriate Government and the local authorities shall endeavour that all educational institutions funded or recognised by them provide inclusive education to the children with disabilities and towards that end shall—

(i) admit them without discrimination and provide education and opportunities for sports and recreation activities equally with others;
(ii) make building, campus and various facilities accessible;
(iii) provide reasonable accommodation according to the individual’s requirements;
(iv) provide necessary support individualised or otherwise in environments that maximise academic and social development consistent with the goal of full inclusion;
(v) ensure that the education to persons who are blind or deaf or both is imparted in the most appropriate languages and modes and means of communication;
(vi) detect specific learning disabilities in children at the earliest and take suitable pedagogical and other measures to overcome them;
(vii) monitor participation, progress in terms of attainment levels and completion of education in respect of every student with disability;
(viii) provide transportation facilities to the children with disabilities and also the attendant of the children with disabilities having high support needs.

Specific measures to promote and facilitate inclusive education

The appropriate Government and the local authorities shall take the following measures for the purpose of section 16, namely:—

(a) to conduct survey of school going children in every five years for identifying children with disabilities, ascertaining their special needs and the extent to which these are being met: Provided that the first survey shall be conducted within a period of two years from the date of commencement of this Act;
(b) to establish adequate number of teacher training institutions;
(c) to train and employ teachers, including teachers with disability who are qualified in sign language and Braille and also teachers who are trained in teaching children with intellectual disability;
(d) to train professionals and staff to support inclusive education at all levels of school education;
(e) to establish adequate number of resource centres to support educational institutions at all levels of school education;
(f) to promote the use of appropriate augmentative and alternative modes including means and formats of communication, Braille and sign language to supplement the use of one’s own speech to fulfill the daily communication needs of persons with speech, communication or language disabilities and enables them to participate and contribute to their community and society;
(g) to provide books, other learning materials and appropriate assistive devices to students with benchmark disabilities free of cost up to the age of eighteen years;
(h) to provide scholarships in appropriate cases to students with benchmark disability;
(i) to make suitable modifications in the curriculum and examination system to meet the needs of students with disabilities such as extra time for completion of examination paper, facility of scribe or amanuensis, exemption from second and third language courses;
(j) to promote research to improve learning; and
(k) any other measures, as may be required.

Adult education

The appropriate Government and the local authorities shall take measures to promote, protect and ensure participation of persons with disabilities in adult education and continuing education programmes equally with others.



4.3         Various Education Commissions since Independence: The University Education Commission (1948-49), the Secondary Education Commission 1952 -53, Kothari Commission report 1964- 66;


The Constitution of India (26 November 1949) clearly states in the Preamble that everyone has the right to equality of status and of opportunity. The Article 41 of the Directive Principles of the Indian Constitution supports the right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases including disablement. Further, Article 45 commits to the provision of free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14 years. Based on this, the Constitution (86th Amendment) Act, 2002, has been enacted by the Parliament making education a fundamental right of all children in the age group of 6-14 years.


The University Education Commission (1948-49)

The Government of India appointed a university Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Radhakrishnan in November 1948. The Commission made a number of significant recommendations on various aspects of higher education and submitted its report in August 1949. In the rapidly changing contemporary world, universities are undergoing profound changes in their scope, function and organisation and are in a process of rapid evolution.

Their tasks are no longer confirmed to the two traditional functions of teaching and advancement of knowledge. After the transfer of power to Indian control on 15 August 1947, great changes had taken place in the political and economic conditions of Indian society. The academic problem has also assumed new shapes.

Similarly the conception of the duties and responsibilities of the universities have become wider and they have to provide leadership in politics, administration, profession, industry and commerce. They have to meet the increasing demand for every type of higher education, literary, scientific, technical and professional. By the application and development of technical and scientific knowledge, the country will enable to attain freedom from want, disease and ignorance.

India is rich in natural resources and her people have intelligence and energy and it is for the universities to create knowledge and train minds who would bring together the two—natural resources and human energies. Keeping these things in view the Commission suggested certain aims of University Education.

Wisdom and Knowledge:

Our ancient teachers tried to teach subjects and impart wisdom. Their ideal was wisdom along with knowledge. We cannot be wise without some basis of knowledge. No amount of factual information would take ordinary men into educated men unless something is awakened in them. Since education is both a training of minds and training of souls, it should give both knowledge and wisdom.

Aims of the Social Order:

We must have a conception of the social order for which we are educating our youth. Our educational system must find its guiding principle in the aims of the social order for which it prepares. We cannot decide what we should do and how we should do it unless we know where we are tending. Unless we preserve the value of democracy, justice, liberty, equality and fraternity, we cannot preserve our freedom. Universities must stand for these ideal causes which can never be lost so long as men seek wisdom.

Love for higher values of life:

The greatness of a country does not depend on the extent of its territory, the length of its communication or the amount of its wealth, not even on widespread education or equitable distribution of wealth, but on the love for higher values of life. If we claim to be civilized we must develop thought for the poor and the suffering, regard and respect for women, faith in human brotherhood regardless of race, colour, nation or religion, love of peace and freedom and ceaseless devotion of the claims of the justice.

Training for Leadership:

One of the central aims of university education is the training for leadership in the professions and public life, which is difficult to realize. It is the function of universities to train men and women for wise leadership. They must enable young men and women to read with insight the record of human experience, to know the nature and consequences of ethical values, to sense the meaning of the social forces operating in the world today and comprehend the complexities and intricacies of life in all its immensity, physical, social and spiritual.

We are building a civilization, not a factory or a workshop. The quality of a civilization depends not on the natural equipment or the political machinery but on the character of men. The major task of education is the improvement of character.


The Secondary Education Commission 1952 -53

The Secondary Education commission known as Mudaliar Commission was appointed by the government of India in term of their Resolution to bring changes in the present education system and make it better for the Nation. Dr. A. Lakshmanswami Mudaliar, the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University was the chair person of this commission.

The commission has observed, “We have to bear in mind the principle that secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage, that at the end of this period, the student should be in a position, if he wishes, to enter on the responsibilities of life and take up some useful vocations. The age at which the child is to begin his secondary education and the age up to which it should be continued is therefore, a matter of considerable importance. It is now generally recognized that the period of secondary education covers the age-group of about to 17 years. Properly planned education, covering about 7 years should enable the school to give a thorough training in the courses of study taken by the student and also help him/her to attain a reasonable degree of maturity in knowledge, understanding and judgement which would stand him/her I rood stead in life.”

The Aims and Objectives of the Recommendations:

1. To Produce Ideal Citizens

The Commission has realised that no nation can progress without a national feeling along with social feeling. Therefore, it has laid down that the aim of secondary education should be to produce such ideal citizens who imbued with strong national and social feeling . They are  to prepare to shoulder their responsibilities and duties and to offer any sacrifice for the sake of their nation. Such citizens should have co-operative feeling directed towards universal brotherhood. While describing the national spirit the Commission has sub-divided it into three parts:

(a) The Commission has explained the concept of national feeling. It has urged that the students of the country should have faith in the greatness and importance of culture of their country and they should feel proud of the same

(b) The Commission suggests that the student should himself make a self-study and analyze his own positive and negative traits with a view to improve his character and personality.

(c) It has been emphasized by the Commission that one should be prepared to make any sacrifice for the nation.

2. To Develop Capacity for Earning Money

The Commission is of the view that after having received secondary education one should be able to earn enough for maintaining himself. For developing this capacity vocational subjects should be introduced in the curriculum.

3. Quality of Leadership

Secondary education should develop the quality of leadership in students. This quality is very necessary for the sake of democracy and for the development of the country as a whole.

4. To Develop Human Virtues

Man is a social animal. So he should have the spirit of co-operation, discipline, humility, love, kindness and the feeling of brotherhood. The curriculum must have such subjects which may inculcate these virtues in students. Science, literature, fine arts, humanities, music and dance are some of such subjects.

5. To Improve Vocational Efficiency:

The Commission  regarded that Self-sufficiency and national prosperity are possible through the creation of vocational efficiency of the students engaging hemselves in productive work.

6. To develop Personality:

The secondary education should be moulded to develop the sources of creative energy among the students so that they can appreciate their cultural heritage to cultivate rich interests in Music, dance , drama, crafts.

Duration of Secondary Education

The Commission has recommended that the secondary education should be for children between 11 to 17 years of age. It has divided this seven years’ education into two parts-(1) Junior High School stage for three years and (2) High School for four years.

The Commission has recommended the introduction of three years’ degree course. For this secondary education should continue up to the eleventh class and the twelfth class should be added to the first degree course (B.A., B.Sc. or B.Com.) of the university. Thus the Commission has suggested the abolition of intermediate colleges existing in some parts of the country.

The Commission has suggested the following changes in the secondary school curriculum:

1. To open multi-purpose schools according to the varying interests of students.

2. The multi-purpose schools should be opened near the industrial institutions. The students of these two types of institutions should learn from each other.

3. Agriculture should be made a compulsory subject for schools in villages.

4. In big cities ‘technical area’ should be established on the demands of the local public.

5. Home science should be made compulsory for girls and other subjects should be common for both boys and girls.

The Commission has emphasized the necessity of reorganizing the secondary school curriculum in order that the aims of education may be realised. In this connection the Commission wants that:

1. The curriculum should be recognized according to the interests of the students.

2. It should be determined for meeting the social aspirations.

3. It should be reorganized keeping in view the demands of the times and those of the country.

4. It should be so organized that the student’s time and leisure may not be wasted.

Subjects of Lower Secondary Education

The Commission has suggested mathematics, general science, languages, social studies, physical education, art, handicraft and music etc., for this stage.

Subjects for Secondary Education

For this stage the Commissionhas suggested seven groups of subjects as below:

1. Humanities.

2. Sciences.

3. Agriculture.

4. Fine Arts.

5. Industrial subjects.

6. Commercial subjects.

7. Home Science.

Curriculum would be of two types:

(i) Core curriculum, which is common for all the students, includes language. General Science, Social Studies and Craft.

(ii) In addition to the core curriculum every student has to take three subjects at the higher stage out of the following seven groups:

1. Humanities (classical language, History, Geography, Economics and Civics, Psychology and Logic, Mathematics, Music, Domestic Science),

2. Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography, Mathematics. Physiology and Hygiene not to be taken with Biology),

3. Technical Applied Mathematics and Geometrical Drawing, Applied Science, Elements of Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering),

4. Commercial (Book Keeping, Commercial Practice, Commercial Geography. Short-hand and Type-writing),

5. Agricultural (General Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Horticulture and Gardening, Agricultural Chemistry and Botany),

6. Fine Arts (History of art, Drawing and Designing, painting, Modeling, Music, Dancing),

7. Home Science (Home Economics, Nutrition and Cooking, Mother Craft and Child Care, Household management and Home Nursing).

(iii) Besides the above, a student may take at his option one additional subject from any of the above groups.

(iv) The diversified curriculum should begin in the second year of the High School or Higher Secondary stage.


Medium of Instruction

The mother tongue or the State language should be made the medium of instruction in this connection; the Commission expressed the following ideas also:

1. The students should be taught at least two languages at the junior high school stage.

2. The Commission has suggested that at the secondary stage a student should learn at least three languages, the national language, the mother tongue or the regional language and a foreign language.

Selection of Text Books

The Commission has opened that text-books should be selected on the basis of their merits and utility. For this purpose the Commission has recommended the appointment of a High Power Committee which will select books for all the classes.

The standard of production, printing and paper used and pictures and illustrations incorporated and suitable content will be the basis of selection. In the opinion of the Commission the following persons will constitute the High Power Committee for selection of text-books:

1. A High Court Judge.

2. A Principal of some government educational institution.

3. A member of the Public Service Commission.

4. A Vice-Chancellor of a university.

5. Two eminent educationalists and the Director of Education of the State.

The Commission has further suggested that the text-book once chosen should not be changed soon.

In addition to text-books each school should have some such books which may impart general knowledge to students.

The teachers should also be provided with new literature and books in order to keep up their interests alive.

Character Formation

Character formation is an important aim of secondary education. This is useful not only for the individual but also for the nation. In fact the character of the nation is reflected by the character of its citizens. Therefore, for raising the character of the nation the character of the students should be well formed.

Health Education

All the students should be medically examined at least twice a year. Full medical facilities should be available for ailing students. They should be given knowledge of health principles also.

Teaching Method

For improving the standard of teaching the Commission has suggested that the Central Government should appoint a Committee of Experts which should make research for finding out ways and means for improving the teaching methods.

Improvement of Teachers status

1. Trained teachers should be appointed to teach higher classes.

2. The policy of same pay for the same work and ability should be adopted.

3. Teachers should be given handsome salary in order that the society may respect them.

4. Teachers should be given pension, provident fund and life insurance benefits in order to give then some economic security. The Government should provide these facilities.

5. The children of teachers should be given free education.

6. Teachers and their dependents should be given free medical service.

7. Separate committees should be appointed for removing the difficulties of teachers.

8. The retirement age for teachers should be 60 years.

9. The teachers should not be permitted to take up tuition of students.

Training and Qualifications of Teachers

The Commission has suggested that for junior classes at least higher secondary school and for senior classes at least graduate teachers should be appointed. These teachers should be given two years training.

Management and Administration of Secondary Schools

The Commission has given the following suggestions in this respect:

1. The post of Education Director should be equivalent to the Joint Secretary of the secretariat and he should advise the minister in this capacity.

2. Central and State Committees should be organised for giving advice on secondary education.

3. The District Inspector of Schools should not only find faults with teachers but should also assist them in performance of their duties. They should solve their problems arising from time to time and should acquaint them with latest developments in the field of education.

4. The Secondary Education Board should be organised under the chairmanship of Education Director who should arrange for secondary education in his State.

5. A Board for teachers’ training should be established.

6. New schools should be recognised only when they fulfill all conditions.

7. The State Government should organise a Committee for management and administration of schools. This Committee should be responsible for the management and administration of schools, but it must not interfere with the work of the Principal.


For this the Commission has given the following suggestions:

1. The Government should be responsible for providing vocational education.

2. Industrial education should be levied for the development of vocational and technical education.

3. The Centre should give financial aid to States for education.

4. No octopi and toll tax should be levied on goods purchased for education institutions.

Duration of  session of Secondary Education and Leave

1. The school should be opened at least for 200 days a year.

2. The schools in rural areas should be closed at least for 7 days at the time of sowing and harvesting in order that the students may help their family in agricultural pursuits.

3. The number of holidays is reduced.

4. At least 35 hours should be devoted for teaching per week.

5. The principal should be empowered to decide, about local holidays and school hours.

6. The student should get at least 10 to 15 days’ leave during a session. The summer vacation should be for two months.

Arrangement of Buildings

1. School buildings should be away from the hubbub and noise of cities. They should be situated in peaceful atmosphere.

2. The school building should be adequately ventilated.

3. A class should not consist of more than 40 students.

4. There should be proper desks and chairs in the schools.

5. Each school should have a big hall where all the students may assemble for some group programme. This hall should be decorated with pictures of great national leaders of different walks of life.

6. There should be a well equipped reading room in each school where the students should get newspapers, periodicals, magazines and other literatures of general knowledge.

Defects in Secondary Education

The defects of secondary education have been pointed out by a number of commissions. It does not prepare adolescent boys and girls for the pursuit of higher education adequately because, among those who take admission in the university, there is a great incidence of failure in the first year of the first degree course.

The Secondary education is too academic and far removed from the problems of life and therefore it is incapable of fulfilling its second objective of equipping boys and girls to enter life confidently and earn their living. The defects in the school education as highlighted by the Mudaliar Commission are given below.

1. An Emphasis on Book Learning

The school education does not inculcate in the student the habit of thinking and clear expression. He is unable to reason and sole problems. His expression is weak. Neither can he neither speak nor write.

The instruction is bookish. Answers are crammed. Examinations are passed. But no ability is produced for creative thinking and expression.

2. Neglect of Co curricular Activities

The emphasis on book learning is so great that all students are supposed to be equally interested in studies. Co curricular activities are neglected. Facilities for organising such activities in secondary schools are limited.

There is paucity of funds. Curricular load is so heavy that teachers and students find time to engage themselves in group games, recreational activities, games and sports, debates and dramas.

3. Education One-sided

The school education is one-sided. It trains the intellect and leaves other aspects of personality undeveloped. It aims only at mental growth and development. Little attention is given to the social or emotional development of the child and the youth.

It does not cultivate a sense of moral and social responsibility. It does not emphasize character-building.

No efforts are made to cultivate interests, attitudes and values for a socialistic society. No arrangements exist for imparting moral instruction. Study of religious is lost sight of.

4. Education Unilateral

The school education is unilateral. Secondary schools are one-track schools. They prepare students only for the university. There is little scope for diversification of studies. Individual differences in needs, interests, aptitudes and mental abilities are ignored and all have to pass through the same strait jackets.

5. Teaching Methods Defective

The teaching methods are defective. In no secondary school you will find dynamic methods of teaching being followed. Though great efforts have been expended during the last two decades on familiarizing school teachers with right techniques and activity methods through workshops, seminars and refresher courses, yet classroom teaching shows little improvement.

Audio-visual aids, the radio and the T.V. have been provided to some schools generously, but their effect is insignificant. The average teacher suffers from a lack of professional preparation.

Educational research on teaching methods suited to Indian needs is nowhere conducted. The existing educational system is rigid and does not encourage initiative, creativity and experimentation the administrative machinery is not at all concerned with diffusing and dynamic methods of teaching.

6. Class Sizes

The number of pupils in each class in most of the secondary schools is too great. There is no teacher-pupil relationship, and hence no personal contact is possible.

No improvement in methods of teaching is possible when a teacher is required to teach very large class every day and in every period allotted to him. Class sizes in schools where extension of buildings is not possible have grown formidably great.

7. Quality of Text-books Defective

The quality of text-books, teachers’ guides and teaching materials is not satisfactory; probably there has been no serious effort either on the Central or on the state level to produce good quality text-books.

The top ranking scholars do not like the job. There are malpractices in the selection and prescription. The publishers who are interested in profits do to produce teachers’ guides to accompany text-books.

8. Examination System Improper

The evils of examination system are known to everybody. These defects have been pointed out, time and again, by committees and commissions. The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) devoted a whole chapter to surveying the limitations of the present examination system and suggesting ways of improvement.

The movement of examination reform that started after the publication of the report does not seem to have the desired impact on objectives, learning experiences and evaluation procedures in school education.

9. Guidance and Counseling Facilities Inadequate

Little has been done in the matter of guidance services to secondary school pupils. To supply a trained guidance worker to every school is difficult. It would be unrealistic to think of providing qualified counselors to all schools.

Yet resources could have been mobilised during the 20 years that have elapsed since the setting up of a Central Bureau of Educational and Vocational Guidance in 1954


Kothari Commission report 1964- 66

Kothari Commission or Education Commission (1964) was set up by the Government of India on 14 July 1964 under the chairmanship of Daulat Singh Kothari, then chairman of the University Grants Commission. The Commission's aimed at examining all aspects of the educational sector across the country. Among other objectives behind setting up of this Commission also included evolution of a general pattern of education. The commission, under the chairmanship of D. S. Kothari, was the sixth commission in India post independence and the first commission with comprehensive terms of reference on education. The Commission had submitted its Report on 29 June 1966; its recommendations were accommodated in India's first National Policy on Education in 1968. 

The recommendations are: 

·      Education and National Objectives,

·      Equalisation of Educational Opportunity

·      Educational Structure

·      Curricular Improvement

·      Improvement in the Methods of Teaching

·      Quality of Text Book

·      Teacher Education

·      Status of Teachers 

Brief Details on Important Recommendations of Kothari Commission (1964-66)

1.     Provision of Free and Compulsory Education – Recommended providing free and compulsory education for children aged 6 to 14 years.

2.     Languages – The Commission recommended adopting a three-language formula at state levels. It intended to promote a language of the Southern States in Hindi speaking states. It intended to promote Hindi, English and a regional language in non-Hindi speaking states.

3.     The Kothari Commission recommended promoting regional languages, Sanskrit as well as international languages, preferably English.

4.     The Kothari Commission recommended providing favourable and adequate service conditions for teachers and providing them with the necessary freedom to conduct and publish those findings.

5.     To promote social justice, the Kothari Commission focused on girls education, education of backward classes, education of tribal people, physically and mentally handicapped children.

6.     As Science and Maths are an integral part of the growth of any nation, the Kothari Commission recommended making Maths and Science an integral part of education.

7.     The Commission recommended reforms to improve education at University level by paying special attention to postgraduate level research, training, providing adequate libraries, laboratories and funds.



4.4         National Education Policy 1986, Plan of Action 1992 and National Education Policy 2020;


The National Policy on Education, 1986 (NPE, 1986), and the Programme of Action (1992) stresses the need for integrating children with disability with other groups. The objective to be achieved as stated in the NPE, 1986 is “to integrate the physically and mentally handicapped with general community as equal partners, to prepare them for normal growth and to enable them to face life with courage and confidence”.

Objectives of the National Policy of Education of 1986 and Programme of Action, 1992

The main objective of the National Policy of Education of 1986 and Programme of Action, 1992 was to establish a national system of education implies that all students irrespective of caste; creed, sex, and religion have access to education of a comparable quality. Actually, the objectives of this policy had been divided into the several aspects.


In relation to Elementary Education, followings are the major objectives of National Policy of Education 1986 are mainly:

·      Universal access and enrolment

·      Universal retention of children up to 14 years of age and 

·      A sustainable improvement in the quality education to enable all children to achieve essential levels of learning.


Regarding Secondary Education, National Policy of Education stressed on the improvement of the quality of secondary education. Effort to be made to provide computer literacy in as many secondary level institutions to make the students equipped with necessary computer skills.


Regarding higher education, National Policy of Education and Programme of Action of 1986 and 1992 emphasized that higher education should provide to the people with an opportunity to reflect on the critical social, economic, cultural, moral and spiritual issues.


Thus, the basic objectives of the National Policy of Education of 1986 and Programme of Action of 1992 emphasized that education must play a positive and interventionist role in correcting social and regional imbalance, empowering women, and in securing rightful place for the disadvantaged and the minorities. Government should take a strong determination and commitment to provide education for all, the priority areas being free and compulsory education, covering children with special needs, eradication of illiteracy, education for women’s equality and special focus on the education of S.C. s (Scheduled caste) and S.T. s(Scheduled tribes) and Minorities.


The educational policy as highlighted in the N.P.E. also emphasized on enhancing and promoting the vocationalisation of education, adult education, education for the mentally and physically challenged persons, non-formal education, open universities and distance learning, rural university, early childhood care and education. Delinking degrees from job was also one of the basic objectives of National Policy of Education of 1986.


The National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 focuses on key reforms in higher education that prepare the next generation to thrive and compete in the new digital age, says Dr. Indrajit Bhattacharya, Director, National Accreditation Board for Education and Training (NABET), Quality Council of India & Dr. Manish Kumar Jindal,CEO, National Accreditation Board for Education and Training, Quality Council of India to Elets News Network (ENN).


The National Education Policy 2020 (NEP 2020), launched on 29 July 2020, outlines the vision of India’s new education system. NEP 2020 focuses on five pillars: Affordability, Accessibility, Quality, Equity, and Accountability – to ensure continual learning. It has been crafted consistent with the needs of the citizens as a demand for knowledge in society and economy called for a need to acquire new skills on a regular basis. Thus, providing quality education and creating lifelong learning opportunities for all, leading to full and productive employment and decent work as enlisted in United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 2030, forms the thrust of NEP 2020. The new policy replaces the previous National Policy on Education, 1986 and forms a comprehensive framework to transform both elementary and higher education in India by 2040.

The NEP 2020 calls for key reforms in both school and higher education that prepare the next generation to thrive and compete in the new digital age. Thus, there is much emphasis upon multidisciplinarity, digital literacy, written communication, problem-solving, logical reasoning, and vocational exposure in the document.

Higher Education in NEP 2020

The NEP 2020 was conceived to raise the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) from the current 26 percent to 50 percent by 2030 in the higher education space. It aims at building the overall personality of students by strengthening infrastructure for open and distance learning, online education and increasing the use of technology in education.

Moreover, the National Research Foundation (NRF) will be set up to boost research work in the country. A National Accreditation Council (NAC) envisaged as a single regulator for higher education institutions across the country will be established. The Higher Education Council of India (HECI) will have multiple verticals to fulfill various roles. Efforts will be undertaken to set up a National Recruitment Agency for all government recruitment exams, and a Common Eligibility Test (CET) for various recruitment exams of the same level.

Moreover, the courses and programmes in subjects, such as Indology, Indian languages, AYUSH systems of medicine, yoga, arts, music, history, culture, and modern India, internationally relevant curricula in the sciences, social sciences, and beyond, meaningful opportunities for social engagement, quality residential facilities and on-campus support, etc. will be fostered to attain this goal of global quality standards.

Accreditation in Higher Education

Regulatory mechanisms of higher education would have “accreditation” conducted by an independent body amongst other key functions. Institutions will have the option to run Open Distance Learning (ODL) and online programmes, provided they are accredited to do so, to enhance their offerings, improve access, increase GER, and provide opportunities for lifelong learning.

The accreditation scheme for improving credibility of Learning Service Provider (LSP) has been developed by National Accreditation Board for Education and Training (NABET),Quality Council of India (QCI) under Department of Industrial Promotion and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Ministry of Commerce and Industries, Government of India. Accreditation ensures Quality Assurance of Trainer/Faculty, Infrastructure; Program Design (Development and Delivery); Training Management System (3 Dimensions: Hardware, Software, Humanware / Skinware).

Education and Skilling in Cyber Security

As per the Global Risk Report 2021 of the World Economic Forum (WEF) 2021, ‘Cyber Security Failure’ ranks 4th most critical threat to the world. As education and learning have already moved to cyberspace due to the ongoing pandemic, it has become utmost important to protect the privacy and security of each individual. Thus, as adoption of digitisation takes centre stage, it is extremely important to make our networks and cyberspace secure. In this current scenario, it becomes pertinent that capacity building for ‘Cyber Security Resilience’ is given prime importance and is included in higher education curriculum irrespective of stream of learning.

Research and Innovation in Higher Education

One of the key thrust areas of NEP 2020 is to encourage high R&D investments from government and private sectors. This will encourage innovation and innovative mindsets. To facilitate the same, there is a need for a strong industry commitment and close intervention with academia for industry led skilling / upskilling/ reskilling.

Further, it becomes pertinent to inculcate the skill sets for driving knowledge about “Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)” and its protection for delivering benefits from it.

The National Education Technology Forum (NETF)

The NETF envisaged to be established under NEP 2020 is a step in the right direction. The hosting of Quality Ed-Tech tools in all the dimensions of teaching-learning delivery would enable institutions of learning to adapt quickly. The emphasis needs to be towards hosting indigenous Ed-Tech tools on “open-source development platforms” with built-in cyber security resilience to ensure ‘privacy & security’ besides adherence to cyber security standards, adoption of firewalls and Intrusion Detection System (IDS) from external threats and vulnerabilities. This will secure the ‘personal privacy of individual students.’



4.5         Equality of opportunity in educational institution and inclusive education at different levels: elementary, secondary and higher education;


Society has a moral obligation to make sure that all children receive an adequate education that gives them the skills needed to become contributing adults in society. This is also in society’s best interest as it is a social waste if some children do not receive a good education. It means that human talents that could contribute to society are not nurtured. All students have talents that grow through formal learning. By failing to develop those talents, society loses opportunities for enrichment and progress. Further social waste is gained by the long-term social and financial costs of poor education. Inadequate education leads to large public and social costs in the form of lower income and poor economic growth, reduced tax revenues, and higher costs of health care, social security, and increased crime.

Educational equity is the study and achievement of fairness, justice, and impartiality (equality) in education. The term equity means accommodating and meeting the specific needs of specific individuals. This means ensuring that everyone’s learning needs are met. Educational equity is based on the principles of fairness in distributing resources, opportunities, treatment, and success for every student.

Equal Opportunities at school is about ensuring that all children and adults have equality of opportunity in terms of access and outcome throughout all aspects of school like and that their life chances for the present and future are not impeded or distorted by anything that happens during their participation in the process of education, but are in fact widened to allow them to achieve the whole scope of their potential.  It is important to note that equal access does not necessarily lead to equality of outcome.


Equal opportunity recognises and celebrates our similarities and our diversity as individuals and groups.  It recognises that all individuals have an intrinsic right to be nurtured in such a way as they are able to reach their full potential.


Equal opportunity accepts that while we all have something of value to contribute, we do not all start on a level playing field.  Consequently some individuals will be disadvantaged in their attempts to reach their potential.  We as an organisation will work hard to differentiate and maximise their personal achievement.


Issues of equality are applicable to us all, but there are a number of people about whom Equal Opportunity concerns are often more formally expressed.  Such groups are often referred to in terms of race, gender, sex and disability or with reference to their age, class, religion or educational achievement.  These terms in themselves may be problematic in that they are social constructs (“man-made”), but they may also have use as frames of reference.


Equal Opportunities covers the whole process of education but particularly embraces issues of multiculturalism, anti-racism, disability, ethnicity,gender and trans-gender, sexuality, and socio economic disadvantage. Strategies to combat inequality include those dealing with  issues of self- esteem and sense of self worth, school organisation, curriculum content and delivery, discipline, provision for those considered to have special educational and or English as an additional language needs, underachievement, and building social relationships within the school community.  Equal opportunity is about creating the structures and contexts for unlocking potential.


On 1 October 2010 new equality legislation came into force. The Equality Act 2010 has replaced all existing equality legislation, including the Race Relations Act, Disability Discrimination Act, and Sex Discrimination Act. This means that three equality duties schools are familiar with (Race Equality, Disability Equality and Gender Equality) have been replaced by a Public Sector Equality Duty (PSED) which came into force on 6 April 2011.


Under the PSED, schools must show due regard to the general duty and its three “components” as well as complying with a set of specifications. The three components to the PSED are:


·      eliminate discrimination, harassment, victimisation and any other conduct that is prohibited by or under this Act

·      advance equality of opportunity between persons who share a relevant protected characteristic and persons who do not share it

·      foster good relations between persons who share a relevant protected characteristic and persons who do not share it


This means that schools are still required to take proactive steps to tackle discrimination, promote equality of opportunity and foster good relations.



Explicit incidents which contribute to inequality include racism, sexism, classicism or any kind of discrimination. Physical violence, verbal abuse, insults, name calling, jokes / ridicule, threats, bullying and graffiti are some of the manifestations of this.   Any such undermining of a person’s sense of worth or self esteem is unacceptable.


The school has a legal duty to implement and monitor an equal opportunities policy, and this is our latest update. Norton Road is proud of its excellent record of harmony, showcased by our zero permanent exclusion and very low general exclusion, bullying and racist incident record.