Unit 5: School Administration:

5.1.    Meaning, definition and principles of School Administration and School Organization;

5.2.    Organization of Special School and Inclusive School;

5.3.    Code and conduct of teacher, duties and responsibilities of the head of school;

5.4.    Annual school plan and Preparation of time-table, Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE);

5.5.    Maintenance of school-record--progress report, cumulative record, case histories;











5.1     Meaning, definition and principles of School Administration and School Organization;



School organization is a combination of two words, via, school and organization. In order to understand the meaning of school organization, it is essential to understand the meaning of school and organization separately.

John Dewey

“The school is a special environment where a certain quality of life and certain types of activities are provided with the object of securing child’s development along desirable lines”.


Meaning and Definition of Organization

Organization means to bring into existence. Organization is directly connected with planning and efforts made by the people. It is a medium, through which goals and the objectives envisaged by the administration are achieved. Administration is pre-executive stage while actual execution occurs or should occur at the organizational level. It is the coordinated activities of a group of persons constituting the organization to lead the common goal.


The term organization has been defined as:

J. B. Sears

          “It is a machine for doing work. It may be composed primarily of persons of materials of ideas, of concepts, symbols, forms, rules, principles or more often of a combination of these. The machine may work automatically or its operation may be subject to human judgement and will”.

W. H. Ryburn

“Organization simply means the practical measure which we take to ensure that the system of work we use will be of the greatest possible assistance in carrying out our aims and of the greatest benefit to our children.”


Aims and Objectives of School Organization

The rapid expansion of knowledge both in content of subject matter and teaching methodology has important implications for school organization. Even though teachers are assumed to be professionally competent, it is not appropriate to assume that they do not need a highly specialized support system through school organization. School organization, being a specialized support system has the following aims and objectives.

1.   Organizing the School for Democratic Living

Democracy is the government by the many. If the many are to rule themselves and no more to be ruled by the tyrant and dictator, they must be educated first. Thus school in the modern society becomes a place for teaching students about democratic living. Therefore the school should be organized in such a manner that it will enable the students to be inspired with the spirit of fellow- feeling, brotherhood and social service.

2.   All round Development of Students

All round development of the students continuing their studies in a school is the chief aim of school organization. It provides opportunities to the students for the balanced development of their personality. Therefore, it is desirable to organize the school in a manner so as to develop the physical, mental, moral and social qualities of the students. Thus the school keeps an eye on the developmental needs of the children. The community establishes schools with a view to serve its own purpose by providing right training for citizenship.

3.   The Study of the Students

The students constitute an important aspect of school organization. Student’s needs, hopes, aspirations, interests, achievement levels and attitudes are important sources of data for developing educational goals and need to be studied on a comprehensive, intensive and continuous basis. Such study is an important aim of school organization. Since students are a part of society, the study of students contributes to the understanding of students needs.

4.   To Follow Definite Procedure

In reaching a decision, school organization should spend much time on the what, the how, the when and the who. The procedure to be followed will be definite, even though the results may be in doubt. All the members of the staff should be encouraged to watch the results and participate in an evaluation of its worth. By action, the group will develop more faith in group work.

5.   Intended Engagement Opportunities

Intended engagement opportunities are the conditions which are developed in anticipation of the instructional process. The assumption is that the student can achieve certain behavioural objectives through a particular engagement. Examples of engagement opportunities could include packaged materials, films and activities. Such materials could be developed within or outside the school system. The planning and implementation for development of such materials is an important aim of school organization, which should involve students, teachers and administrators.


6.    Curriculum change

 The school is a society in miniature. To bring the school and the community closer to each other, attempts must be made for curriculum change. Curriculum change should be initiated by school organization system to enable schools to undertake innovations in certain areas. Community dissatisfaction with the existing programme may lead to curriculum change. If a large segment of the community believes that reading can be taught more effectively, it can exert pressure on the Board of Education that results in efforts to change the programme of teaching.


7.   To develop a permissive atmosphere

Permissiveness, as used by psychologists, means personal freedom to express a point of view or an idea without fear of recrimination because it is in opposition to one held by someone with power or authority. If the atmosphere is really permissive, the members of the staff value the person who is different rather than attempt to force him to conform. The person who is different is encouraged to challenge, because out of that challenge comes more insight for all. Achieving this attitude is not easy. In some staff, the person who is different threatens other people and they hunt for ways of silencing him. School organization aims at developing a permissive atmosphere in the school.


8.   To develop among the teachers a sense of belonging

Teachers should feel that they belong to the group with which they work. Desire to be accepted or to remain a part of the group is more powerful in conditioning. School organization should aim at developing a sense of belonging among the teachers and try to provide an atmosphere of free interaction to innovative ideas for the progress of students learning.

9.   Help in personal problems

People will grow intellectually and professionally through the interaction involved in solving educational problems, if they are deeply troubled with personal problems; their potential for growth is not released. Actions by school organization to reduce tension contribute to the progress of education.


Principles of School organization


1)   Child- centered principle

Since education aims at the all round development of the child, it is essential that school organization should be child centered. As a result, it can help in developing student’s abilities, innate qualities, emotions, attitudes and natural traits. The school organization should be such as to generate an atmosphere which may help the child in the development of his social, moral, physical and mental capabilities. To provide opportunity to every child for his optimum development school activities should be properly organized.

2)    Community centered principle

One of the objectives of education is to make the child an active, useful and worthy member of the society. Therefore, along with child centered principle, community centered principle should be adopted in schools. When we try for the development of the child as an individual, we should also make arrangements for the progress of the community. School organization should keep in view the developmental needs of the children as well as the community ideals, aspirations, needs, values and culture.


3)   Democratic principles

The school prepares the future citizens and inculcates democratic values in them. The democratic ideals are inculcated in the minds of the children through the school activities. Students can develop knowledge about democratic principles if we can organize schools on democratic lines. The principles of co-operation and co-ordination in the entire school system can help the students to develop knowledge about democratic living. School organization should be planned in such a manner that the headmaster, the teachers, the students and other staff members work with team spirit. They should feel that school organization is their own activity. If a single individual dominates over school organization, all democratic ideas are destined to fail.

4)   Principle of optimum use of available resources

Education has certain objectives to be achieved. In order to achieve these objectives, optimum use of available resources must be made while organizing the school. The physical and human resources of the community should be used in such a manner that the items, money and energy are utilized effectively for proper organization of the schools. Recruitment of teachers, use of up-to-dare teaching techniques, use of equipment, preparation of textbooks and construction of curriculum should be made in such a manner that they can be directed towards fulfilling the educational needs of the students and avoiding the misuse of time, energy and money.

5)    Principle of flexibility

 Society is dynamic in nature, not static. Since education aims at developing the abilities of the child in a manner that would help in the development of the society, it becomes necessary to effect changes in school organization from time to time. Therefore, school organization should be dynamic in nature, not static.


Need for School Organization

School organization facilitates the achievement of organizational goals and maintaining the organization for the progress of education. We need school organization for the following reasons:

·      Constant Process of Change

School education is in a constant process of change. There is always a need to facilitate student learning in a specified direction in this changing process. School organization, which includes the management of teaching, planning and supervision of instruction, can help to achieve the goal of student learning; therefore, we need school organization to achieve the above goals.


·      Goal Development

The educational system is a sub-system of the society and therefore the society not only provides human and non- human resources but also has certain expectations that the schools will achieve certain goals. Since society is in a constant process of change, the needs of society change and so do the goal specifications. It is necessary for the educational institution to be responsive to these changing expectations through school organization. School organization helps the teachers and others who are concerned with school education to continuously examine and evaluate the progress of education in a changing society.

Significance of School Organization


Ø It is very much necessary to ensure smooth functioning of a school.

Ø It is necessary to avoid under and over utilization of the resources of a school there by ensuring optimum and judicious use of the resources.

Ø It is important to make best use of the capabilities of the school personnel because if they are allotted the work depending upon their area of expertise, interest, experience they are likely to deliver work at the best of their abilities.

Ø It is necessary to save time, increase clarity and efficiency of work as there is clarity of duties to be performed and responsibilities to be held on the part of the school personnel.

Ø It is significant to achieve the aims and objectives of a school smoothly.

Ø It is important to create a professional image of a school.

Ø It lays stress on building relationships among the school personnel thereby helps in increasing mutual trust, interdependency which is necessary to build team spirit among the school personnel.


Scope of School Organization


The scope of school organization can be understood form the following points. Each point includes a wide variety of activities involved in the school system. The points are as follow


·      Organization of academic and administrative work of a school 

This includes the major areas like planning the teaching work, organization of learning resources such as library, e-content and also organization of co-curricular activities. The organization of administrative work deals with organization of all the old and present records, registers of different types and other documents of the school. They are to be well organized and preserved. Besides, it includes the task of chalking out the duties and responsibilities of administrative personnel for smooth administrative work.


·      Organization of Physical resources of the school

This helps in organizing all the physical resources of a school to ensure their optimum utilization. Even planning for new resources is also considered under this.


·      Organization of organizers / personnel of the school

This deals with assigning work to the school personnel, chalking out the duties and responsibilities, delegating powers for decision making and directing and ensuring coordination between different school personnel. In addition to this, it also refers to the organization of various activities for ensuring their professional and personal growth, sustaining their motivation and maintaining harmony and developing interpersonal relationships among them.


·      Democratic organization

This refers to make the school work democratically following the policy of participatory management.


·      Organization of conducive climate for smooth working

It is very important to make the school personnel work efficiently and devotedly. Mere salaries will not help to develop a sense of commitment for an organization. Adequate working hours,  freedom to carry out innovations, scope for professional growth, acceptance of human relationships and many other factors help in creating conducive climate for working. A good school organization should always strive to create such type of climate which create and sustain the motivation of school personnel for the growth and development of the school.



School organization means looking after the internal and external affairs of the school, the proper use of the recourses available and taking proper cared of the resources so that teaching and learning can take place in a better way. School organization is concerned with a system in which the headmaster, the teacher, the students, and other related persons come as a team to undertake the task of running the school on sound lines. Hence by school organization we mean the act of organizing all available physical and human resources in an organized manner to attain the objectives of education.



5.2     Organization of Special School and Inclusive School;




Special schools (segregation) are institutes dedicated to improving the lives of children and adolescents with pediatric developmental disabilities, learning disorders, and behavioral problems through patient care, special education, research, and professional training. Mostly special schools will be specifically designed, staffed and resourced to provide the appropriate special education for children with additional needs. Generally, students attending special schools do not attend any classes in mainstream schools. Special schools provide individualized education, addressing specific needs of students.

Children with disability study either in a special school or in a regular mainstream school. It is possible for these children to cross over from a special to a regular mainstream school if and when they want to. Special Education as a separate system of education for disabled children outside the mainstream education evolved way back in the 1880s in India. It was based on the assumption that children with disability had some special needs that could not be met in mainstream

Special needs schools are different from regular schools in that they cater to students with education challenges. They are designed, staffed, and have the resources to provide the right support for children with unique needs.

These schools aim to level the playing field. They offer students targeted support to allow them to meet age-appropriate educational goals.

They don’t have a “one-size-fits-all” approach to education. Instead, they offer customized programming to meet each student’s unique combination of needs. This includes not just learning, but also social and emotional needs.

Special needs schools and programs offer a wide range of approaches and services to meet this goal. For instance, they may offer

“Special education programs may be a delivered through a range of placements. Students may benefit from assessment and instruction that is personalized, precise, explicit, and intensive, as required.

Inclusive education is when all students, regardless of any challenges they may have, are placed in age-appropriate general education classes that are in their own neighborhood schools to receive high-quality instruction, interventions, and supports that enable them to meet success in the core curriculum.

The school and classroom operate on the premise that students with disabilities are as fundamentally competent as students without disabilities. Therefore, all students can be full participants in their classrooms and in the local school community. Much of the movement is related to legislation that students receive their education in the least restrictive environment (LRE). This means they are with their peers without disabilities to the maximum degree possible, with general education the placement of first choice for all students.

Successful inclusive education happens primarily through accepting, understanding, and attending to student differences and diversity, which can include physical, cognitive, academic, social, and emotional. This is not to say that students never need to spend time out of regular education classes, because sometimes they do for a very particular purpose — for instance, for speech or occupational therapy. But the goal is this should be the exception.

The driving principle is to make all students feel welcomed, appropriately challenged, and supported in their efforts. It’s also critically important that the adults are supported, too. This includes the regular education teacher and the special education teacher, as well as all other staff and faculty who are key stakeholders — and that also includes parents.

inclusive education



5.3     Code and conduct of teacher, duties and responsibilities of the head of school;



Code and conduct of teacher

All the teachers are expected to be exemplary in their public and private life. Their loyalty, sense of dedication and integrity of character at all times should be an inspiration of the youth committee to their care. The teacher shall attend to his duties with care and commitment, be punctual in attendance and dutiful in respect of class room and also for any other work connected with the duties assigned to him by the Head of the school or the Board. He shall abide by the rules and regulations of the school and carry out the lawful orders and also show due respect to the constituted authorities. 


Duties and responsibilities of the head of school

·      Head of the School/Principal will be the ex-officio. Hony. Secretary of the School Managing Committee.

·      Will function as, the Head of the office of the school under his charge and carry out all administrative duties required of a head of office.

·      Be the drawing and disbursing officer for the employees of the school except that in the case of an unaided school, he may perform only such function, as drawing and disbursing officer as may be specified in the instructions issued by the Society.

·      Be responsible for the proper maintenance of accounts of the school, school records, service books of teachers, and such other registers, returns and statistics as may be specified by the Society/Board.

·      Handle official correspondence relating to the school and furnish, within the specified dates, the returns and information required by the State Government/Board.

·      Make all payments (including salaries and allowances of teachers and other non-teaching staff) in time and according to the instructions governing such payment.

·      Ensure that the tuition fees, as levied, are realised and appropriately accounted for and duly appropriated for the purpose for which they were levied.

·      Make purchases of stores and other materials required for the school in accordance with the rules governing such purchases and enter all such stores in stock register and shall scrutinize the bills and make payments.

·      Conduct physical verification of school property and stock at least once a year and ensure the maintenance of stock registers neatly and accurately.

·      Be responsible for proper utilization of the Pupils Fund.

·      Make satisfactory arrangements for the supply of good drinking water and provide other facilities for the pupils and ensure that the school building, its fixtures and furniture, office equipment, lavatories, play grounds, school garden and other properties are properly and carefully maintained.

·      Supervise, guide and control the work of the teaching and non-teaching staff of the school.

·      Be incharge of admission in the school, preparation of school timetable, allocation of duties and teaching load to the teachers, and shall provide necessary facilities to the teachers in the discharge of their duties and conduct of school examination in accordance with the instructions issued by the Government /Board from time to time; and he shall discharge these duties in consultation with his colleagues.

·      Plan the year’s academic work in advance in consultation with his colleagues and hold staff meeting at least once a month, review the work done during the month and assess the progress of the pupils.

·      Help and guide the teachers to promote their professional growth and actively encourage their participation in courses designed for inservice education.

·      Promote the initiative of the teachers for self-improvement and encourage them to undertake experiments which are educationally sound.

·      Supervise class room teaching and secure co-operation and coordination amongst teachers of the same subject areas as well as inter subject coordination.

·      Arrange for special remedial teaching of the children belonging to the weaker sections of the community also of other children who need such remedial teaching.

·      Arrange for informal and non-class room teaching.

·      Plan and specify a regular time-table for the scrutiny of pupil’s written work and home assignment and ensure that the assessment and corrections are carried out timely and effectively.

·      Make necessary arrangement for organising special instructions for the pupils according to their needs.

·      Organise and coordinate various co-curricular activities through the house system or in such other effective ways as he may think fit .

·      Develop and organise the library resources and reading facilities in the school and ensure that the pupils and teachers have access to and use of books and journals of established value and usefulness.

·      Send regularly the progress reports of the students to their parents or guardians.

·      Promote the physical well being of the pupil, ensure high standard of cleanliness and health habits, and arrange periodical medical examinations of the students and send medical reports to parents or guardians.

·      Devote at least twelve periods in a week to teaching of the pupils.




5.4     Annual school plan and Preparation of time-table, Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE);


It is accepted that the most effective organisations are those which place a great emphasis on clarifying their aims and objectives, as well as engaging in corporate, collaborative and comprehensive planning in order to achieve those aims and objectives.

The school is also an organisation and likewise needs to be effective. In order to be so, it needs to enable all its partners to join in the clarification and statement of its aims and objectives and to agree on strategies to achieve them. School-based planning is the most important means through which this is done.

To assist the school in becoming effective and in promoting school improvement, a strategy is necessary to harmonise the sometimes differing expectations of teachers, boards of management and parents. Collaborative school planning and the production of a School Plan can provide a framework for the development of such a strategy.

The School Plan is a statement of the educational philosophy of the school, its aims and how it proposes to achieve them. It deals with the total curriculum and with the organisation of the school’s resources, including staff, space, facilities, equipment, time and finance. It includes the school’s policies on such key issues as: pupil assessment, special needs, record-keeping, staff development, teachers’ preparation, homework, the code of behaviour, home-school links, equal opportunitiesin the curriculum for girls and boys, intercultural education, health and safety standards.

While the School Plan will ensure adherence to the school’s own aims and objectives, it will also enable all partners to be aware of and to subscribe to the stated over-arching aims of the education system as expressed

        by statute

        in curriculum guidelines

        in the circulars of the Department of Education and Science

        in accepted national policy reports and documents.

The School Plan has as its essential purpose the achievement of school effectiveness as well as being a significant support for school improvement. It will help the school to realise its stated aims and objectives which will be firmly directed towards meeting the present and anticipated needs of the pupils. It will help to ensure quality in teaching and learning throughout the school. In helping to achieve effectiveness, the School Plan will direct attention towards those areas of school activity which are accepted as being essential in ensuring effectiveness.

The following are regarded as important features of schools which are effective:

        purposeful leadership by the principal

        curriculum planning and development

        appropriate communication structures

        teacher/classroom preparation

        intellectually challenging teaching

        an environment in the classroom which is conducive to learning

        a positive climate

        parental involvement

        assessment and record keeping

        consistency in the implementation of agreed policies.

The School Plan will serve as a basis for the work of the school as a whole and also for evaluating and reporting on whole school progress and development.


First of all, a timetable is a kind of schedule that shows when specific events will happen. It is a plan which shows at what times certain activities will happen. Therefore, a timetable is very useful in planning ahead. Timetable tells the order in which events will take place.
A school timetable is for managing school-related activities. It is useful for students, teachers, rooms, and other resources. A school timetable usually cycles every week or every fortnight.


A school timetable is certainly a useful tool. Its importance is due to the following reasons:

Curriculum Organization

A school timetable has defined period lengths. It also has specific subjects for each period. Hence, it allows administrators to distribute enough resources to most curriculum parts. The organization of a good timetable is such that important subjects are at the best times.

Student Organization

A timetable informs students about the time of class periods. Furthermore, it also lets them know the duration of each class period. Without a school timetable, the students will not be able to prepare properly.

Reducing Confusion

A good school timetable reduces confusion for teachers. A school timetable allows teachers to properly make their routines. Hence, teachers feel comfortable. Another benefit is that teachers can also remove mistakes.

Critical Routines

Above all, the most important reason is developing a routine. This routine is for all students and staff. Teachers must develop routines for students. Administrators must describe when and where students go for class. Also, administrators should tell which teacher will teach what class.


Consolidated Timetable

It’s an integrated timetable of all classes in a school. A copy of it should be in the principal office and staff room.

Class wise Timetable

This tells which class is at which time. Furthermore, it also tells which teacher will teach what class.

Teacher wise Timetable

This is useful for the teachers. It tells where a teacher will be going to teach and what subject. Each teacher must have a copy of the concerned timetable.

Teachers Free Period Timetable

A copy of this is available at the principal office. The principal can use this to arrange for substitution when a teacher is absent.

Games Time Table

This shows the games which each class will have at a specific time. It helps students to select their favorite activity.


The following principles are important when making a timetable:

Type of School

First of all, one should see whether a school is a single-gender school or co-educational. Also one should see whether it is rural or urban school. The level of school- junior school, middle school, high school, or intermediate school. Also, the nature of activities is also important for consideration.

Department Regulation

The department of education decides the duration of the school year. It also sets the duration of a school day. Furthermore, it also decides the number and duration of class periods.

The Principle of Justice

A good timetable gives responsibility to teachers of suitable subjects. The teacher has the qualification for such subjects. He should not teach in more than two departments. The teaching load should be equal for everyone.

Importance and Difficulty of Subjects

The time given to a subject must follow this. Hence time should be more for more important and difficult subjects.


Now the important question comes, “ how to make a school timetable”. Preparation of a school timetable happens in the following manner:

        Prepare a List

This is a list of what one needs to do on a daily basis. At this stage, one should not worry about the organization.

        Write Tasks

Here one should all the tasks one intends to do. Here one should write all the tasks whether big or small.

        Analyze the List

Re-check the tasks to see if they are really necessary. Certainly, there would a need for corrections in this stage.

        Open Microsoft Excel or a similar

Create a column of times on the left side. Create a row of days of the week at the top.

        Matchup Tasks with Time

Begin with tasks that take place at a certain time. Then go to other tasks on the basis of difficulty.

        Be Flexible

The time should be flexible to allow room for changes. This is because no task can be absolutely fixed.

        Print Spreadsheet

Finally, the preparation of the school timetable is over.


Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE)

Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) system was introduced by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) in India to assess all aspects of a student’s development on a continuous basis throughout the year. The assessment covers both scholastic subjects as well as co-scholastic areas such as performance in sports, art, music, dance, drama, and other cultural activities and social qualities.

Evaluation of Scholastic Areas

Scholastic subjects are assessed using two modes: Formative Assessment (FA) and Summative Assessment (SA). Formative Assessment usually comprises of Class Tests, Homework, Quizzes, Projects, and Assignments directed throughout the year. Summative Assessment measures how much a student has learnt from the class through an examination/test conducted at the end of a term.

Evaluation of Co-Scholastic Areas

Co-Scholastic areas are assessed using multiple techniques on the basis of specific criteria. Assessment of co-scholastic areas are done at the end of the year, and grades are generally given on a 5 point grading scale.




5.5     Maintenance of school-record--progress report, cumulative record, case histories;


The maintenance of the Cumulative Record Card should begin when the student enters school and should follow the student from class to class within a school and from school to school as he continues his progress.

The class teacher will maintain the Cumulative Record. In view of the fact that he spends much time with the students he will be in a greater position to judge them from different aspects. He will maintain a diary or note-book in which he will note down from time to time his observations about his students. At the end of the year he will make the necessary entries in the Cumulative Record Card (CRC). It is very desirable that he consults his colleagues who also know the pupils. These entries should be made after careful consideration.

Meaning of Cumulative Record Card:

A Cumulative Record Card is that which contains the results of different assessment and judgments held from time to time during the course of study of a student or pupil. Generally it covers three consecutive years. It contains information regarding all aspects of life of the child or educed-physical, mental, social, moral and psychological. It seeks to give as comprehensive picture as possible of the personality of a child.

“The significant information gathered periodically on student through the use of various techniques – tests, inventories, questionnaire, observation, interview, case study etc.”

Basically a Cumulative Record Card is a document in which it is recorded cumulatively useful and reliable information about a particular pupil or student at one place. Hence presenting a complete and growing picture of the individual concerned for the purpose of helping him during his long stay at school. And at the time of leaving it helps in the solution of his manifold problems of educational, vocational and personal-social nature and thus assisting him in his best development.

A case history basically refers to a file containing relevant information pertaining to an individual client or group. Case histories are maintained by a broad range of professional organizations including those in the fields of psychiatry, psychology, healthcare, and social work. The following information briefly discusses two formal definitions of case histories, the basic contents of case histories, and how the information for initial case history files is obtained.

The type of information contained in case histories may vary depending on the organization that is maintaining the records. For example, while a medical clinic will need to include in-depth medical information about its clients in their case histories, social workers may only need to include more generalized medical information (if any at all).

Instead, they may need more in-depth information pertaining to such things as the client's history of services, client investigations, or counseling sessions involving the client. In any case, some of the most common types of information often included in case histories are as follows:

        Basic Statistical Data (Client's name, age, sex, address, phone number, occupation, marital status, and client ID number)

        Client's History of Services

        Investigations Pertaining to Client's Case

        Investigation Outcomes

        Past and Present Treatments and/or Counseling Sessions

        History of Illnesses

        History of Complaints and Their Resolutions

        History of Referrals