Unit III: Teaching of Social Science

3.1 Role of Social Science in day to day living.

3.2 Objective of teaching social science.

3.3 Different approaches and techniques of teaching social science.

3.4 India’s physical features, natural resources, national symbols, festivals, states and their capitals, languages.

3.5 India’s constitution, fundamental rights and duties of citizens and national integration.









3.1 Role of Social Science in day to day living


Social Science is the study of the activities of the physical and social environment. Basically, it is the study of human relations or the scientific study of human society. It deals with the humans-their relationships, behaviour, development and resources they use and many kinds of organizations they need to carry in their daily life like the workplace, school, family, government, etc. It is important because its study helps us to gain knowledge of the society we live in. Generally, Social Science focus on the relationships among individuals in society. It is the mixture of many subjects like History, Geography, Political Science, Economics, Sociology, Social Psychology and many more.

The main definition of social science is – “The social sciences subjects are those subjects which describe and examine the humans”. Social science is the society related study — the primary reason for Social studies to help students to develop the ability to make the right decisions. It increases the social considerate of students.

G.S. Browne: "Social Studies (Social Sciences) should be the most valuable subject in the school curriculum. Its objectives are to foster in the pupils an active interest in everything affecting the community in which they live, to train them in clear thinking on public questions and to equip them for sound judgement in the future by a full study of their environment."

The most important branches of Social Science are Anthropology, Economics, Politics, Psychology, Sociology, History, Law, Linguistics, Archaeology and Geography. Social Science is not a common discipline of Science which requires you to bury your mind with endless scientific formulas and tire yourself out in mind-boggling experiments. It delves deeper into the science of humankind and society and explores many branches such as Law, Political Science, Psychology, History and more. 

Social Science aware the students about our surroundings and the incidents happened in the past. It has significance to develop an international viewpoint. It is also important for the moral progress of society. It helps to form the man social character. Study of Social Science makes us an efficient citizen of a democracy, and it also helps us to solve the practical problems in our daily life. It is essential for communities and organizations. It also helps the students to know how different societies are managed, structured and governed.

Qualities Of Purposeful Social Studies

1. Meaningful

Social studies should be meaningful to students. Teachers should embrace the natural interests of students and plan topics around those interests.

2. Integrative

Integrating all aspects of life is key to a successful social studies curriculum. Not only should current events and other classes be integrated, but also aspects of daily life as well. Every moment is a teachable moment.

3. Value-Based

Key values of democracy are opportunity, equality, justice, and freedom of speech. These values should be echoed throughout all parts of social studies.

4. Challenging

Teachers can challenge children in social studies classes in ways they aren’t or can’t be challenged in other classes. In-depth critical analysis should be implemented — getting students to think and reflect will help them engage and challenge them to care about what’s going on around them.

5. Active

Get students active and engaged with debates, discussions, role playing, projects, and simulations. This is one area of school where kids should really get into it!

When we analyze social studies, we can identify some relations with personal life and its influence in daily life. Social studies help a person to improve his personal life. Following points may reveal the importance of social studies in daily life-

1. It describes the importance of cultural unity and diversity within and across groups.

2. It demonstrates an understanding that different people may describe the same event or situation in diverse ways, citing reasons for the differences in views.

3. It demonstrates an understanding that people in different times and places view the world differently.

4. It helps to use appropriate resources, data sources, and geographic tools such as atlases, databases, charts, graphs, and maps to generate, manipulate, and interpret information.

5. It helps to examine the interaction of human beings and their physical environment.

6. It helps to observe and speculate about social and economic effects of environmental changes.

7. It considers existing uses; and proposes and evaluates alternative uses of resources.

8. It helps to work independently and cooperatively to accomplish goals.

9. It is useful in identifying and describing examples of tension between an individual’s beliefs and government policies and laws.

10. It helps to examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relation to his/her social group such as family, peer group, school and class.

11. It is useful in identifying factors that contribute to cooperation and cause disputes within and among groups and nations.

12. It ascertains and describes examples in which science and technology have changed the lives of people such as in homemaking, child care, work, transportation and communication.

13. It examines the influence of public opinion on personal decision-making and government policy on public issues.

The aim of social studies is to promote civic competence or a practical understanding of how to effectively participate in public life, ultimately aiming at a comprehensive understanding of society. It is taught to young students as a preparation for their future life.


3.2 Objective of teaching social science


The Education Commission, 1966: The aims of teaching Social Studies (Social Sciences) is to help the students to acquire a knowledge of their environment, an understanding of human relationships and certain attitudes and values which are vital for intelligent participation in the affairs of the community, the state, the nation and the world. An effective program of Social Studies/Social Sciences is essential in India for the development of good citizenship and emotional integration.

Aims of Teaching Social Science in Schools:-


·        It gives knowledge about civilization and culture.

·        It provides knowledge of social development.

·        It develops social behavior.

·        It  develops civil qualities.

·        It develops the power of thinking and reasoning.

·        It develops the feeling of universal brotherhood.

·        It develops modernization.

·        It develops suitable proficiency and good habits.

·        It develops the moral and social values.

·        It develops the all-round personality.


Objectives of social science

Social science help students to know about the duties towards human society and make us understand how a man can fulfil their needs. Because of Social science students understand the fundamental rights in our constitution, freedom fighters who fought for the nation. It also provides knowledge of the social environment and nature. It also develops the human qualities, desirable attitudes in students, and it also expands the critical thinking and imagination of students. Students learn many different things from social science like cultural and social beliefs, religions, caste, nationalities, languages, festivals, clothing, food etc. From these things, students come to know that in the society they live is multicultured, diverse and interrelated between the countries, culture and religion.

1.     Knowledge and understanding objectives:

· The essential terms, definitions, concepts, themes, and generalizations useful for the proper study of the subject Social Sciences.

· The things and phenomena related to the physical and social environment.

· The various social problems existing in the environment.

· The use of available resources to meet the basic human needs related to food, clothing and shelter.

2.     Skill objectives:

· Skill of reading, interpreting, using, and making of different types of graphic materials like maps, graphs, tables, charts, pictures, diagrams, time lines, posters, cartoons, etc.

· Skill of making use of various data sources like textbooks, library material, current periodicals, newspapers and magazines, museum, places of visits and excursions and other community resources, audio - visual aids and equipments, internet and worldwide web, etc. for useful information, study and data collection.

3.     Application objectives : The teaching and learning of sciences is helpful to the students in making them capable of applying and utilizing all such knowledge and understanding gained (as pointed out in the knowledge and understanding objectives) and skills acquired (as pointed out in the skill objectives) through the study of one or the other topics or learning experiences related to a Social Sciences course.

4.     Attitude objectives:

· Positive and favourable attitude towards the existence and functioning of social organizations and institutions.

· Attitude of cooperation, sympathy, tolerance, love and trust towards the people belonging to other castes, cultures, religions, language groups, regions, states, and nations.

· Positive attitude and firm belief in the goodness of the democratic system of the government.

Social Science helps the students to know the importance of democracy, freedom and rights and how to live in society. It makes the student responsible, active and reflective towards the society. And also makes the students well informed about the culture, religion and society; in short, it makes the student well-informed citizen.

The main goal of teaching social studies is to teach students to become good citizens. We are living in a diverse society — one that requires knowledge of social studies to succeed. With a social studies background, children become adults that can participate civilly in our democratic society.


3.3 Different approaches and techniques of teaching social science


Teaching methods refers to the general principles, pedagogy and management strategies used for classroom instruction. It comprises the principles and methods used for instruction.



It is the oldest procedure of teaching. It is widely used in schools and colleges. It is a good method its cover a wide topic at heights level of college or secondary schools and higher secondary classes but its success depends on the personality and ability of students.

Why this method should be used?

To motivate students.
To give an overview of a large topic.

To add supplement the students reading.
To make an importance matter understanding.
To provide background of a topic or to introduce the topic
To help the students to use their time wisely
To explain the major concepts of a lesson
To develop reasoning skill of students
To have a classroom discussion

Merits Of The Method:

 To establishes face to face contact. It develops attention span. Students develop listening and note taking skills. Students can prepare the notes. It is easy method for new teachers.

Demerits Of The Method:

It is a teacher centered method not very good for SS. It is a monotonous tiring and sometimes it becomes a boring method. It brings a lot of burden and reading to the teacher. It is not an interactive method.


There are three types of sources in this method.

1. Material resource: Ideas, machines, weapons etc…..
2. Oral resources: Songs, folk stories, traditions, customs etc...
3. Written and printed resources: Records, reports, letters etc….

Source method is an activity oriented method. It is generally used in social studies subject also. Generally sources mean a person, books or document or picture or actual objects that can provide information for learning. It is learning directly from the actual sources for examples for social studies they can be- A contract with the bank – or studying the sample of stone collected from the moon or an object found from any ancient place can also be studied. One can also take students to museums to find the objects to study.

Advantages Of Sources Method:

It provides direct, first hand experience.
It develops a sense of reality
It creates motivating and interesting ambience in the class.
It develops skill of data collection, thinking skill and observation skill.
It makes the subject meaningful.


The word discussion means exchanging views and debate. Here the discussion can be among the group of students as a whole group.

Where And When Can You Use Discussion Method?

1. The teacher of S.S. can use this method when he is using a project method.
2. When he has to share information and ideas from a large group.
3. When one needs to solve a problem, or do thinking and analytical activity in the class.
4. When one obtain information and ideas from a large group of students.
5. When one needs to check or evaluate students’ progress.

Forms Of Discussion:

Formal, debate, classroom, informal, panel, symposium.

Merits Of Discussion Method:

• It is based on differences.
• It emphasizes independent study.
• It develops reasoning.
• It develops study habits.
• It is activity oriented.
• It teaches how to study purposefully.
• It helps the teacher to find leadership quality among students.
• It helps in clarifying ideas, issues etc.
• It creates better understanding of the topic, issues, events, ideas or concepts.

Demerits Of Discussion Method

• It is time consuming method.
• It needs some training and average teacher cannot
• Some students do not benefit from this activity.
• Sometimes only a few students dominate.
• There can be some necessary argument and can lead to some major problems.



Problem-solving is the ability to identify and solve problems by applying appropriate skills systematically.

Problem-solving is a process—an ongoing activity in which we take what we know to discover what we don't know. It involves overcoming obstacles by generating hypo-theses, testing those predictions, and arriving at satisfactory solutions.


Problem-solving involves three basic functions:

1.                  Seeking information

2.                  Generating new knowledge

3.                  Making decisions

Problem-solving is, and should be, a very real part of the curriculum. It presupposes that students can take on some of the responsibility for their own learning and can take personal action to solve problems, resolve conflicts, discuss alternatives, and focus on thinking as a vital element of the curriculum. It provides students with opportunities to use their newly acquired knowledge in meaningful, real-life activities and assists them in working at higher levels of thinking.

·                     List all related relevant facts.

·                     Make a list of all the given information.

·                     Restate the problem in their own words.

·                     List the conditions that surround a problem.

·                     Describe related known problems.

What is problem-solving?

 Students are presented with problems which require them to find either a scientific or technological solution. It is a student-centered strategy which require students to become active participants in the learning process. Problem solving is a teaching strategy that employs the scientific method in searching for information.

 Five basic steps of the scientific method

 1. Sensing and defining the problem

2. Formulating hypothesis

3. Testing the likely hypothesis

4. Analysis, interpretation and evaluation of evidence

5. Formulating conclusions




 1. This approach is most effective in developing skill in employing the science processes.

2. The scientific method can likewise be used effectively in other non-science subjects. It is a general procedure in finding solutions to daily occurrences that urgently need to be addressed.

 3. The student’s active involvement resulting in meaningful experiences serves as a strong motivation to follow the scientific procedure in future undertakings.

4. Problem-solving develops higher level thinking skills.

5. A keen sense of responsibility, originality and resourcefulness are developed, which are much-needed ingredients for independent study.

 6. The students become appreciative and grateful for the achievement of scientists.

7. Critical thinking, open-mindedness and wise judgment are among scientific attitudes and values inculcated through competence in the scientific method.

8. The students learn to accept the opinions and evidence shared by others.

9. Problem-solving Skills



Project method is a direct outcome of pragmatism, especially of John Dewey’s educational philosophy. Pragmatism believes in reality. It is scientific and empirical. It is based on the principle of learning by doing. Being influenced by John Dewey, Kilpatrick tried to give project method in 1918. This method is democratic in nature and it emphasizes social skills and team work.


What Is A Project Method?

It is a progressive approach of teaching. It is a purposeful act it provides the learner with learning experiences. Here the teacher acts like a guide assigns the projects to groups of students.’ Each group works on different topics or problems. They work together to prepare the project. The students work together as a team, they learn by discussing, reading, and exchanging ideas. Then they take the help of a teacher wherever they difficulties or have questions. The project method covers the content of many different subjects and the teacher tries to integrate the information to the main topic. This method gives complete freedom and choice to students.

Advantages Of Project Method:

It gives freedom and creativity.
Here the teacher and students both grow.
Students can link the subject to real life.
It motivates students.

Disadvantages Of Project Method:

It is expensive method.
It is time consuming.
It needs lots of resources.
Some projects cannot be done at school.




Dialog is a means to transform social relations in the classroom and to raise awareness about relations in society at large. In a problem-posing participatory format, the teacher and students transform learning into a collaborative process to illuminate and act on reality.

Dialogic teaching is an approach which harnesses the power of talk to stimulate and extend pupils thinking, advancing their learning and understanding.

It is mainly built on ‘talk’ – both the teachers and the pupils.

The dialogic approach focuses more on:


·                     Narrate

·                     Analysis

·                     Justify

·                     Explain

·                     Speculate

·                     Imagine

·                     Explore

·                     Argue

·                     Evaluate

·                     Discuss

·                     Ask their own questions                                                                                                   




Encourages children to voice their understanding. Children were found to be more motivated and be more engaged in learning when talk was used more often. Easily integrated to lessons.




It involves the children to respect and listen to each other more than usual possibly which is a skill which may take time to develop. The concept needs to be developed further in order for it to be effective and to be incorporated into everyday teaching.



Cooperative Learning, sometimes called small-group learning, is an instructional strategy in which small groups of students work together on a common task. The task can be as simple as solving a multi-step math problem together, or as complex as developing a design for a new kind of school. In some cases, each group member is individually accountable for part of the task; in other cases, group members work together without formal role assignments.

According to David Johnson and Roger Johnson (1999), there are five basic elements that allow successful small-group learning:

·                     Positive interdependence: Students feel responsible for their own and the group's effort.

·                     Face-to-face interaction: Students encourage and support one another; the environment encourages discussion and eye contact.

·                     Individual and group accountability: Each student is responsible for doing their part; the group is accountable for meeting its goal.

·                     Group behaviors: Group members gain direct instruction in the interpersonal, social, and collaborative skills needed to work with others occurs.

·                     Group processing: Group members analyze their own and the group's ability to work together.

Cooperative learning changes students' and teachers' roles in classrooms. The ownership of teaching and learning is shared by groups of students, and is no longer the sole responsibility of the teacher. The authority of setting goals, assessing, learning, and facilitating learning is shared by all. Students have more opportunities to actively participate in their learning, question and challenge each other, share and discuss their ideas, and internalize their learning. Along with improving academic learning, cooperative learning helps students engage in thoughtful discourse and examine different perspectives, and it has been proven to increase students' self-esteem, motivation, and empathy.

Some challenges of using cooperative learning include releasing the control of learning, managing noise levels, resolving conflicts, and assessing student learning. Carefully structured activities can help students learn the skills to work together successfully, and structured discussion and reflection on group process can help avoid some problems.


To clarify social values.
To focus attention on a specific central ideas.
To extend vocabulary.
To gain greater insight into the problems of others.
It develops social skills, communication skills and team spirit.
They provide excellent basis for discussion and evaluation.



Role playing, socio drama or creative dramas are used to present a specific situation for study and discussion. There is no prepared script. It is unrehearsed, speaking parts are not memorized and minimum properties are used.
Role play is a way of bringing situation from real life into the classroom.
A role in other words, they pretend to be different person.
A situation they pretend to be doing something different both a role $ a situation.
In role play, students improvise the situation is fixed but they make up the exact as they go.


Assignments are tasks requiring student engagement and a final tangible product that enables you to assess what your students know and don’t know. They represent one of the most common ways to assess learning.  They can be either low-stakes [formative assessment] or high-stakes [summative assessment], so the number and type of assignments will depend upon your course design, learning outcomes, and course enrollment numbers.



·                     Easier and less time-consuming to construct than exams

·                     Promotes higher-order thinking (application, synthesis, and evaluation)

·                     Transfer and generalization more likely than for exams


·                     May require additional resources (e.g. lab space or other facilities)

·                     May require class time (e.g. group projects, presentations, etc.) 

·                     Typically more time consuming to grade than exams

·                     May be less effective for introductory level content



Types of Assignments

There are various types of assignments that can be used to develop or demonstrate students' higher-order thinking skills, writing skills, presentation skills and/or collaborative and interpersonal skills.

·                     Essays are used to assess student comprehension over specific content and the ability to explain the material in their own words.

·                     Writing or research papers focus on student comprehension, ability to understand material, but depending upon the purpose of the paper, can also measure student’s innovation or evaluation abilities.

·                     Oral presentations are used as a method to assess oral presentational skills, understanding of the content, and ability to organize and structure material.

·                     Projects are an exceptional method to assess student’s creation or innovation abilities. For example, a student has to understand the material, apply their understanding to another context, and construct a project based upon this comprehension.

·                     Case studies are used to apply class content to a specific individual, usually themselves.

·                     Labs are an ideal method to apply abstract ideas or theories to concrete experiences.

·                     Group assignments are able to assess interpersonal, communication, and collaborative skills of students. For collaboration, a student must be able to synthesize the material from group members and help create a group solution or product.  



In order to be effective learners, students must not only use their memory and the language skills they have internalized, they must also develop their own way of learning. Students who “learn to learn” gain control of their learning process and gradually develop the ability to master their mental processes more effectively. A student’s inner language is what enables him/her to develop the high-level cognitive skills associated with metacognition.

Metacognition enables students to be more active in their learning, i.e., to mobilize all of their resources in order to have successful learning experiences. In order to do this, they must know how they learn and be aware of the steps that are followed and the means that are used to acquire knowledge, solve problems, and perform tasks.

Metacognition is the process of "thinking about thinking." For example, good readers use metacognition before reading when they clarify their purpose for reading and preview the text.

So in other words, metacognition is the understanding and awareness of one's own mental or cognitive processes.

Some examples of metacognition are:

·                     A student learns about what things help him or her to remember facts, names, and events.

·                     A student learns about his or her own style of learning.

·                     A student learns about which strategies are most effective for solving problems.

Students become increasingly autonomous in their learning as they become aware of their strengths and weaknesses and understand that being successful depends on the effort they make and the strategies they implement. Their ability to regulate their cognitive processes increases accordingly and their self-image improves. Students with LDS can improve their learning capacity through the use of metacognitive strategies.

When students are able to manage their own performance on a task, they perform better and their learning is more meaningful than when they are not able to manage it. Metacognition starts when students think about the strategies they will use to perform a task. Metacognition happens when they choose the most effective strategies and decide for themselves whether the outcome of these strategies meets the standards. The time taken to teach a variety of strategies is very important because students must choose strategies for each task they perform.


3.4 India’s physical features, natural resources, national symbols, festivals, states and their capitals, languages


India’s physical features

Physical environment of India is an important content area in geography at the secondary level. It mainly comprises topics like location and size of India, major physical features of India, drainage systems in India, monsoon, natural vegetation and their distributions, conservation of natural vegetation and wildlife. In this unit, we will provide you with a brief description on each of these topics. Each topic is followed by suggestive teaching-learning strategy which includes learning objectives, teaching-learning activities and assessment questions. This unit expects you to foster geographical skills among students by organising relevant activities pertaining to the different topics under physical environment of India and also help you acquire relevant information so that you can analyse and answer to problems related to the topics.

After reading the chapter, the students will be able to -

·      Relate the importance of Relief features in terms of Economic Development of the country

·      Analyze the productive and protective role of Himalaya.

·      Identify the role of natural forces causing changes in the earth landforms

·      Analyze the importance of Himalayas as Climatic Divide

·      Assess the role of northern plains as food bowl of India

·      Distinguish between Western Ghats and Eastern Ghat

·      Locate, label and identify various mountain passes, peaks and other important physical

Natural resources

Natural Resources Management is the management and sustainable consumption of natural resources such as landplantsanimalswater, and soilObjectives of natural resources management and conservation are to protect and preserve the flora and fauna to main the balance in the ecosystem. Without this balance in the ecosystem, the biomass pyramid, food chain, food web, and all related biological activities would collapse affecting the survival of human beings.

The objectives of natural resource management are as follows:


National symbols

India has many national symbols with which it identifies itself and takes pride in them. These symbols have been chosen from India’s unique flora and fauna, and its culture and civilisation. In a nutshell, these symbols say a lot about India. These symbols are intrinsic to the Indian identity and heritage. Indians of all demographics backgrounds across the world are proud of these National Symbols as they instill a sense of pride and patriotism in every Indian's heart.


The significance of Teaching India's national symbols

India has 17 official national emblems. Below is a list of national symbols and their significance.

1. They represent the deep cultural fabric that runs through the centre of the nation. 
2. Give Indian folks a strong sense of national pride. 
3. Illustrate a trait that is particular to India and its people. 
4. Spread awareness of the chosen item. 
5. Contribute to the long-term preservation of the selected national emblem.


Festivals are very important. They make us forget our cultural and religious differences. They unite people and they come together for the sole purpose of celebration and happiness. Other than that, festivals also help us embrace our culture and religion. They are very helpful in breaking the monotony of life.

Moreover, people look forward to festivals all-round the year. Festivals spark joy and give people something to look forward to. In addition, people also repair their homes and paint them that look like brand new. It beautifies the look of the locality.

5 valuable skills that kids learn from festivals are:

Social skills

Getting together with friends and family at a festival is the best way to spend time together. While attending a festival, there is always the possibility of meeting new friends and creating memories. A child learns how to greet people, welcome them, interact with them, and communicate with others. Interacting with the environment around them is the most effective way for pre-schoolers to learn. Such celebrations impart skills such as being empathetic, taking responsibility, and having compassion for others to children.

Diversity and Inclusivity

India is a diverse country and because of this diversity, every festival is celebrated differently in each state. Along with this, every culture has its own set of festivals that expresses many different meanings, morals, and styles. As every festival has its unique style of celebration, greeting each other, food, responsibilities are expressed in different styles. This teaches kids about respecting every festival of any kind. International schools focus on making sure kids are adaptive and with such diversity, every month and every week, there is always something new to learn and adapt to.


Every festival has its story, and every time the stories are taught to the children. Through this, they learn about history, reality, morals, etc. Usually, all the stories have morals and something important to learn so every time kids get reminded to be good people and avoid wrong acts. Normally, it's the best way to teach kids not to lie, respecting others, and being helpful to parents and others.

Moral and Ethical Values

Children tend to copy-paste what elders and some of the most valuable ethics and morals children learn indirectly are, sharing, showing respect, taking responsibilities, teamwork, Kindness, affection, etc. The act of voluntary service and charitable giving - the concept of thinking of others outside the family circle that may need practical or financial assistance - is also a valuable one for kids.

Valuing Relationships

Festivals are all about get-togethers. Family, friends, and neighbourhoods of every religion come together and celebrate each festival with great enthusiasm and respect. This indirectly teaches kids that everyone is important and every relationship with anyone of any religion is special.


States and their capitals

 India is the second most populated nation in the world and the 7th largest country overall. It constitutes a union of states in India with a total of 28 states and 8 Union Territories. India is a union of states, and the head of the executive in each state is the Governor, who serves as the President’s representative. Each state in India has a capital that serves as the administrative, legislative, and judicial centre. In other jurisdictions, the capital serves as the hub for all three activities. It is a territory with a chief minister of its own. A state has a unique, independent government. The State Government is in charge of carrying out state duties such law enforcement, health care, administration, and revenue collection.

India is a republic with a parliamentary form of government that is a sovereign, secular, democratic nation. Both its natural beauty and cultural heritage are plentiful in this country. The linguistic, cultural, and geographic division of India is based on its States and Capitals of India. After becoming independent, it was divided into the British Provinces and the Princely States. The princely states had three alternatives once India and Pakistan were divided:

·    Remaining independent

·    Joining Pakistan

·    Joining India

Out of the 552 princely states that made up India, 549 became part of it, and the other 3 refused. They did, however, eventually integrate. The Indian Constitution was ratified on November 26, 1949, and it went into effect on January 26, 1950. The States Reorganization Act of 1956 altered the state boundaries of India based on linguistic distinctions.



India has traditionally been a country with so many countries and languages within. Being a civilization state, India has rich diversity of languages where hundreds of languages are spoken even today. Respecting the sentiments of people of all languages speakers, the modern India also gives right representation in the constitution. The principal official language of the Republic of India is Standard Hindi, while English is the secondary official language. However, there is bright prospect for translation services in the regional languages which are spoken by millions of people.

The government of India has recognized 22 languages that include Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, Bodo, Santhali, Maithili and Dogri.




3.5 India’s constitution, fundamental rights and duties of citizens and national integration


India’s constitution

Today, most countries in the world have a Constitution. While all democratic countries are likely to have a Constitution, it is not necessary that all countries that have a Constitution are democratic. There can be several purposes for drafting a constitution, they are:

Therefore, it can be understood that the constitution allows coordination and assurance. On the other hand, it can limit the powers of the government. 

The Constitution is a major topic, taught more than once in school and then again in college if you take a certain kind of disciplinary trajectory. But how it is taught and what it means to the young are subjects difficult to talk about in the absence of any extensive research or dialogue in that matter. One thing we do know: the Indian education system does not distinguish between various matters. The system does not distinguish between topics based on their gravity or significance in public life. Everything is a topic, everything is a chapter which has to be covered, whether it is the crisis of water, climate change, the Constitution and the difficulties it faces, problems arising out of poverty, gender discrimination, violence in society . . . you can talk about almost any topic.

Fundamental rights and Duties of citizens

Fundamental human rights are rights that the Supreme Court has identified needing a high level of security from government meddling. Laws that infringe on fundamental rights must typically withstand rigorous examination to be recognised as constitutional.

Fundamental rights are human rights guaranteed to all people of India as written in the Indian Constitution. They are administered without regard for race, religion, gender, or other factors. Courts have the power to protect fundamental rights under specific situations.

List of Fundamental Rights 

The following are the six fundamental rights of the Indian Constitution, as well as the constitutional provisions that connect to them:

1.     Right to Equality (Article 14-18).

2.     Right to Freedom (Article 19-22).

3.     Right against Exploitation (Article 23-24).

4.     Right to Freedom of Religion (Article 25-28).

5.     Cultural and Educational Rights (Article 29-30).

6.     Right to Constitutional Remedies (Article 32).

Our constitution recognises the importance of fundamental rights.They are the most citizen-friendly provisions of the body, according to Dr B R Ambedkar. They were thought to be necessary to preserve the people’s freedoms and rights from the abuse of the authority that they had assigned to their government. Fundamental rights are crucial since they serve as the nation’s backbone.

These rights encapsulate the fundamental ideals that the citizens have held dear since the Vedic era. They weave a predictable pattern into the essential foundation of human rights. It puts negative responsibilities on the state rather than allowing the state to impinge on individual freedom in all of its forms. They are necessary for an individual to achieve his full conceptual, ethical, and spiritual potential. They defend the rights of all people, the respect of the person, and the nation’s unity.

The following points demonstrate this:-

1.     Law and Order: Those rights safeguard citizens from the state and are required for the legal system to exist, rather than the rule of a state or a person. The authorities cannot violate these rights since they are granted to the people by the constitution. The government is entirely accountable to the court and must safeguard these rights.

2.     The first fruit of the liberation struggle is that people have forgotten what freedom meant after living under slavery for so long. They are no longer dependent on the whims of the authorities. They were, in that feeling, the first results of the long battle for independence, and they provided a sense of contentment and fulfilment.

3.     Freedom Abstract reasoning: Every Indian person is free to pursue their preferred religion, but this is not the case in the Gulf nations. 

Objectives of Fundamental Rights:

1.     To ensure the fullest physical, mental and moral development of every citizen. They include those basic freedoms and conditions which alone can make life worth living.

2.     To generate a feeling of security amongst the minorities in the country.

3.     To establish the framework of ‘democratic legitimacy’ for the rule of the majority.

4.     To provide standards of conduct, citizenship, justice, and fair play.

5.     To serve as a check on the government. 

Learning objectives:

·      Define the meaning and the need of fundamental rights.

·      Understand the need for right to equality and right to freedom through examples and real life case studies.

·      Understand the degree of restrictions which can be placed on one’s freedom of expression.

·      Identify violations to the rights to equality and freedom in the society around them.

·      Justify the need for reasonable restrictions on the rights provided/guaranteed.

·      Use freedom of expression to advocate for ensuring rights are given to people around them.

National integration

National integration is the awareness of a common identity amongst the citizens of a country. It means that though the individuals belong to different communities, castes, religions, cultures and regions and speak different languages, all of them recognize the fact that they are one.

National integration plays a dynamic role in making the country as one. This happens only by uniting every section of society. It provides an equal opportunity for each citizen. It also offers an equal platform in terms of social, cultural and economic development. National integration also helps to unite the minorities as well as gives them the freedom to live their life in their way without any interference. Thus, National integration is also essential for the country’s development. Because the country with national unity will always flourish and develop.


The following are the aims of national integration:

Njeng’ere (2014) in his work highlighted some roles of curriculum in national integration as:

· To foster nationalism, patriotism and provide national unity.

· To develop aesthetic values and appreciates own and other people’s cultures.

· Instil respect and love foe own country and need for harmonious co-existence.

· Promotes respect for and development of country’s rich and varied cultures.

· Promote love for and loyalty to the nation.

· Develop into a responsible and socially well-adjusted person among others.


Social Science is the study of the activities of the physical and social environment. Basically, it is the study of human relations or the scientific study of human society. It deals with the humans-their relationships, behaviour, development and resources they use and many kinds of organizations they need to carry in their daily life like the workplace, school, family, government, etc. It is important because its study helps us to gain knowledge of the society we live in. Generally, Social Science focus on the relationships among individuals in society. It is the mixture of many subjects like History, Geography, Political Science, Economics, Sociology, Social Psychology and many more.