Unit V: Development of IEP

1. Need for Individual Education Program (IEP), Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP)& Individual Transition Plan (ITP)

2. IEP development team

3. Components of IEP

4. Process of IEP development

5. Group educational program





1. Need for Individual Education Program (IEP), Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP)& Individual Transition Plan (ITP)

Individualized Education Programme (IEP)

An I.E.P., or “Individualized Education Program,” is a written plan that describes the unique needs of a child who is eligible for special education and explains the specific services that the school will give the child.

An I.E.P. is an legal  document that describes exactly what special education services your child will receive and why. It will include your child’s eligibility, present  level of  performance, services, goal and objectives. The I.E.P. is decided at an I.E.P. meeting. The program must be designed to meet your Child’s unique needs.

The IEP is a written plan prepared for a named student. It is a record of what is being agreed as ‘additional to’ and ‘different from’ the usual differentiated curriculum provision that is provided by every class/subject teacher.

The collaborative nature of the process, through the involvement of teachers, parents, other professionals and the students him/herself facilitates the creation and development of a working document, enabling true inclusion of students.


§  I.E.P. is a management tool designed to ensure that in school Children with Special Needs receive the special education and related services appropriate to their needs. I.E.P. remain the corner stone of every educational programme planned for each student with  disability.

§  I.E.P. is a written statement for a student with exceptionality that is developed, reviewed and revised on a regular basis.

Purpose And Needs Of IEP                                                                                   

§  Get to know the child and discover their learning style, then the IEP will better reflect the child's needs. I would also suggest obtaining the form that may be filled out and used for Occasional Teachers.

§  The IEP allows for a broader explanation of the student's strengths, capabilities, weak areas, social balance, behavior needs and adjustments needed for the education and personal growth of the child.

§  The information on the IEP can direct the teachers, parents and other professionals to compile the information that will give the student a distinct advantage to reaching his/her educational requirements.

§  It also allows for a clearer understanding of the individuals personal needs.

§  The main purpose of IEP is to provide appropriate education and training to every child with  mental retardation. As  no two mentally retarded children  have similar abilities and needs, the development of IEP depends on the needs of the child

§  the IEP allows for a broader explanation of the student's strengths, capabilities, weak areas, social balance, behavior needs and adjustments needed for the education and personal growth of the child.

§  The information on the IEP can direct the teachers, parents and other professionals to compile the information that will give the student a distinct advantage to reaching his/her educational requirements.

The Individualized Family Support Plan is a written treatment plan or document that identifies the child's and family's strengths and needs, sets goals (for both the child and family members) or maps out early intervention services for the child and determines the steps that will be taken to achieve these goals.

It is a family based approach to services due to the central concept and understanding that supporting a child’s family lends itself to supporting the child or that the family is the child’s greatest resource and should be included in all stages of the plan.

A multidisciplinary team, which includes the parents, develops an Individualized Family Support Plan following the determination of eligibility, for each child and family.

The IFSP differs from the IEP in several ways

       It revolves around the family, as it is the family that is the constant in a child's life.

       It includes outcomes targeted for the family, as opposed to focusing only on the eligible child.

       It names a service coordinator to help the family during the development, implementation, and evaluation of the IFSP.

       It includes activities undertaken with multiple agencies beyond the scope of Part C. These are included to integrate all services into one plan.

       It includes the notion of natural environments, which encompass home or community settings such as parks, child care, and gym classes.

       This focus creates opportunities for learning interventions in everyday routines and activities, rather than only in formal, contrived environments.


1.     Child's  current  level of functioning and need :

       It includes strengths, interests and areas of concern.

       Areas include physical, cognitive, communication, social development and adaptive environment.

2.     Family information

       This includes details about family’s priorities, concerns and resources as they relate to enhancing the development of the child.

3.     Statement of the major outcomes:

       This includes writing the statement of the major outcomes (or goals) expected to be achieved for the child and family.

       These should be short term goals and not the achievement goals for the child’s entire life.

       The outcomes or goals must be relevant, specific and measurable.

       It should include the criteria, procedures and timelines used to determine the degree to which progress toward achieving the outcomes is being made.

4.     Support and Services:

       The support and services that the child will receive should be listed in detail to achieve the stated outcomes provided within the child and family's daily routines and activities.

       Supports and services can be in the form of educational, medical, paraprofessional and social services.

5.     Place and Time:

§  Where in the natural environment (school, home or community) the services will be provided should be mentioned.

§  When the services will begin, how often they will occur and how long they will last should also be mentioned

§  Who will pay for these services should also be mentioned (A variety of funding resources may be used to pay for these services including state and federal government resources, private insurance, family resources and/or local agencies.

6.     Service Coordinator:

a.     The name of the Service Coordinator must be there. This person is the family's primary contact for assistance throughout the IFSP process, and is responsible for the implementation of the plan and coordination with other agencies and people.

b.     He should also connect the family with other families and ensure that they understand their rights and procedural safeguards.

Individualized Transition Plan (ITP)

The ITP is a section of the IEP that outlines transition goals and services for the student with disability. The IDEA requires that all students must have an ITP by the age of 16. The ITP is the template for mapping out short-term to long-term adult outcomes from which annual goals and objectives defined.

There are two important components in the ITP. One is a plan including educational goals for a child with disabilities to achieve independent adult live after leaving school. It should include in the areas of independent living , employment (including supported employment), post-secondary education, self-determination skills . Law will require ITP planning should include experience in the community. Schools provide various unique programs for students between 16-22 years of age who are in transition from high school to adulthood.

The other component of the ITP is establishing an inter-agency linkage. School should play a role of case manager creating a collaborating team between school and other government and public service organizations . Parents also can contact and invite professionals from the future service organizations. This inter-agency linkage is a key component ensuring a seamless smooth transition from school to adulthood for people with disabilities.

What must be included in the ITP?

Why is transition planning important ?

Transition to adulthood is challenging for students with disabilities. Without guidance, students often fail or isolate themselves from the community. Transition planning provides student, family and the educators to be ready for the real world. The goals are tailored to the student’s strengths and provide the options for his/her future.

ITP team members


2. IEP development team

The IEP Team Members

By law, certain individuals must be involved in writing a child's Individualized Education Program. These are:

§  The child’s parents

§  At least one of the child’s special education teachers or providers

§  At least one of the child’s regular education teachers (if the student is, or may be, participating in the regular education environment);

§  A representative of the school system;

§  An individual who can interpret the evaluation results;

§  Representatives of any other agencies that may be responsible for paying for or providing transition services (if the student is 16 years or, if appropriate, younger);

§  The student, as appropriate, and

§  Other individuals who have knowledge or special expertise about the child.

Note that an IEP team member may fill more than one of the team positions if properly qualified and designated. For example, the school system representative may also be the person who can interpret the child's evaluation results.

These people must work together as a team to write the child's IEP. A meeting to write the IEP must be held within 30 calendar days of deciding that the child is eligible for special education and related services.

Each team member brings important information to the IEP meeting. Members share their information and work together to write the child's Individualized Education Program. Each person's information adds to the team's understanding of the child and what services the child needs.

Parents are key members of the IEP team. They know their child very well and can talk about their child's strengths and needs as well as their ideas for enhancing their child's education. They can offer insight into how their child learns, what his or her interests are, and other aspects of the child that only a parent can know. They can listen to what the other team members think their child needs to work on at school and share their suggestions. They can also report on whether the skills the child is learning at school are being used at home. (See the information at the end of this section about parents’ possible need for an interpreter.)

Teachers are vital participants in the IEP meeting as well. At least one of the child's regular education teachers must be on the IEP team if the child is (or may be) participating in the regular education environment. The regular education teacher has a great deal to share with the team. For example, he or she might talk about:

·      The general curriculum in the regular classroom;

·      The aids, services, or changes to the educational program that would help the child learn and achieve; and

·      Strategies to help the child with behavior, if behavior is an issue.

The regular education teacher may also discuss with the IEP team the supports for school staff that are needed so that the child can:

·      Advance toward his or her annual goals;

·      Be involved and progress in the general curriculum;

·      Participate in extracurricular and other activities; and

·      Be educated with other children, both with and without disabilities.

Supports for school staff may include professional development or more training. Professional development and training are important for teachers, administrators, bus drivers, cafeteria workers, and others who provide services for children with disabilities.


The child's special education teacher contributes important information and experience about how to educate children with disabilities. Because of his or her training in special education, this teacher can talk about such issues as:

·      how to modify the general curriculum to help the child learn;

·      the supplementary aids and services that the child may need to be successful in the regular classroom and elsewhere;

·      how to modify testing so that the student can show what he or she has learned; and

·      Other aspects of individualizing instruction to meet the student's unique needs.

Beyond helping to write the IEP, the special educator has responsibility for working with the student to carry out the IEP. He or she may:

·      work with the student in a resource room or special class devoted to students receiving special education services;

·      team teach with the regular education teacher; and

·      Work with other school staff, particularly the regular education teacher, to provide expertise about addressing the child's unique needs.

Another important member of the IEP team is the individual who can interpret what the child's evaluation results mean in terms of designing appropriate instruction. The evaluation results are very useful in determining how the child is currently doing in school and what areas of need the child has. This IEP team member must be able to talk about the instructional implications of the child's evaluation results, which will help the team plan appropriate instruction to address the child's needs.

The individual representing the school system is also a valuable team member. This person knows a great deal about special education services and educating children with disabilities. He or she can talk about the necessary school resources. It is important that this individual have the authority to commit resources and be able to ensure that whatever services are set out in the IEP will actually be provided.


The IEP team may also include additional individuals with knowledge or special expertise about the child. The parent or the school system can invite these individuals to participate on the team. Parents, for example, may invite an advocate who knows the child, a professional with special expertise about the child and his or her disability, or others (such as a vocational educator who has been working with the child) who can talk about the child's strengths and/or needs. The school system may invite one or more individuals who can offer special expertise or knowledge about the child, such as a paraprofessional or related services professional. Because an important part of developing an IEP is considering a child's need for related services (see the list of related services at the end of this section), related service professionals are often involved as IEP team members or participants. They share their special expertise about the child's needs and how their own professional services can address those needs. Depending on the child's individual needs, some related service professionals attending the IEP meeting or otherwise helping to develop the IEP might include occupational or physical therapists, adaptive physical education providers, psychologists, or speech‑language pathologists.

When an IEP is being developed for a student of transition age, representatives from transition service agencies can be important participants. (For more information about transition, see the information provided at the end of this section.) Whenever a purpose of meeting is to consider needed transition services, the school must invite a representative of any other agency that is likely to be responsible for providing or paying for transition services. This individual can help the team plan any transition services the student needs. He or she can also commit the resources of the agency to pay for or provide needed transition services. If he or she does not attend the meeting, then the school must take alternative steps to obtain the agency's participation in the planning of the student's transition services.

And, last but not least, the student may also be a member of the IEP team. If transition service needs or transition services are going to be discussed at the meeting, the student must be invited to attend. More and more students are participating in and even leading their own IEP meetings. This allows them to have a strong voice in their own education and can teach them a great deal about self‑advocacy and self‑determination.


3. Components of IEP

By law, the IEP must include certain information about the child and the educational program designed to meet his or her unique needs. In a nutshell, this information is:


n  Current performance. The IEP must state how the child is currently doing in school (known as present levels of educational performance). This information usually comes from the evaluation results such as classroom tests and assignments, individual tests given to decide eligibility for services or during reevaluation, and observations made by parents, teachers, related service providers, and other school staff. The statement about "current performance" includes how the child's disability affects his or her involvement and progress in the general curriculum.


n  Annual goals. These are goals that the child can reasonably accomplish in a year. The goals are broken down into short‑term objectives or benchmarks. Goals may be academic, address social or behavioral needs, relate to physical needs, or address other educational needs. The goals must be measurable‑meaning that it must be possible to measure whether the student has achieved the goals.


n  Special education and related services. The IEP must list the special education and related services to be provided to the child or on behalf of the child. This includes supplementary aids and services that the child needs. It also includes modifications (changes) to the program or supports for school personnel‑such as training or professional development‑that will be provided to assist the child.


n  Participation with nondisabled children. The IEP must explain the extent (if any) to which the child will not participate with nondisabled children in the regular class and other school activities.


n  Participation in state and district‑wide tests. Most states and districts give achievement tests to children in certain grades or age groups. The IEP must state what modifications in the administration of these tests the child will need. If a test is not appropriate for the child, the IEP must state why the test is not appropriate and how the child will be tested instead.


n  Dates and places. The IEP must state when services will begin, how often they will be provided, where they will be provided, and how long they will last.


n  Transition service needs. Beginning when the child is age 14 (or younger, if appropriate), the IEP must address (within the applicable parts of the IEP) the courses he or she needs to take to reach his or her post‑school goals. A statement of transition services needs must also be included in each of the child's subsequent IEPs.


n  Needed transition services. Beginning when the child is age 16 (or younger, if appropriate), the IEP must state what transition services are needed to help the child prepares for leaving school.


n  Age of majority. Beginning at least one year before the child reaches the age of majority; the IEP must include a statement that the student has been told of any rights that will transfer to him or her at the age of majority. (This statement would be needed only in states that transfer rights at the age of majority.)


n  Measuring progress. The IEP must state how the child's progress will be measured and how parents will be informed of that progress.



4. Process of IEP development

The writing of each student’s IEP takes place within the larger picture of the special education process under IDEA. Before taking a detailed look at the IEP, it may be helpful to look briefly at how a student is identified as having a disability and needing special education and related services and, thus, an IEP.


Step 1. Child is identified as possibly needing special education and related services.


“Child Find.” The state must identify, locate, and evaluate all children with disabilities in the state who need special education and related services. To do so, states conduct “Child Find” activities. A child may be identified by “Child Find,” and parents may be asked if the “Child Find” system can evaluate their child. Parents can also call the “Child Find” system and ask that their child be evaluated. Or


Referral or request for evaluation. A school professional may ask that a child be evaluated to see if he or she has a disability. Parents may also contact the child’s teacher or other school professional to ask that their child be evaluated. This request may be verbal or in writing. Parental consent is needed before the child may be evaluated. Evaluation needs to be completed within a reasonable time after the parent gives consent.


Step 2. Child is evaluated.

The evaluation must assess the child in all areas related to the child’s suspected disability. The evaluation results will be used to decide the child’s eligibility for special education and related services and to make decisions about an appropriate educational program for the child. If the parents disagree with the evaluation, they have the right to take their child for an Independent Educational Evaluation (IEE). They can ask that the school system pay for this IEE.


Step 3. Eligibility is decided.

A group of qualified professionals and the parents look at the child’s evaluation results. Together, they decide if the child is a “child with a disability,” as defined by IDEA. Parents may ask for a hearing to challenge the eligibility decision.


Step 4. Child is found eligible for services.

If the child is found to be a “child with a disability,” as defined by IDEA, he or she is eligible for special education and related services. Within 30 calendar days after a child is determined eligible, the IEP team must meet to write an IEP for the child.


Once the student has been found eligible for services, the IEP must be written. The two steps below summarize what is involved in writing the IEP.   This guide will look at these two steps in much greater detail in the following section.


Step 5. IEP meeting is scheduled.

The school system schedules and conducts the IEP meeting. School staff must:

n  contact the participants, including the parents;

n  notify parents early enough to make sure they have an opportunity to attend;

n  schedule the meeting at a time and place agreeable to parents and the school;

n  tell the parents the purpose, time, and location of the meeting;

n  tell the parents who will be attending; and

n  tell the parents that they may invite people to the meeting who have knowledge or special expertise about the child.


Step 6. IEP meeting is held and the IEP is written.

The IEP team gathers to talk about the child’s needs and write the student’s IEP. Parents and the student (when appropriate) are part of the team. If the child’s placement is decided by a different group, the parents must be part of that group as well.


Before the school system may provide special education and related services to the child for the first time, the parents must give consent. The child begins to receive services as soon as possible after the meeting.


If the parents do not agree with the IEP and placement, they may discuss their concerns with other members of the IEP team and try to work out an agreement. If they still disagree, parents can ask for mediation, or the school may offer mediation. Parents may file a complaint with the state education agency and may request a due process hearing, at which time mediation must be available.


Here is a brief summary of what happens after the IEP is written.


Step 7. Services are provided.

The school makes sure that the child’s IEP is being carried out as it was written. Parents are given a copy of the IEP. Each of the child’s teachers and service providers has access to the IEP and knows his or her specific responsibilities for carrying out the IEP. This includes the accommodations, modifications, and supports that must be provided to the child, in keeping with the IEP.


Step 8. Progress is measured and reported to parents.

The child’s progress toward the annual goals is measured, as stated in the IEP. His or her parents are regularly informed of their child’s progress and whether that progress is enough for the child to achieve the goals by the end of the year. These progress reports must be given to parents at least as often as parents are informed of their nondisabled children’s progress.


Step 9. IEP is reviewed.

The child’s IEP is reviewed by the IEP team at least once a year, or more often if the parents or school ask for a review. If necessary, the IEP is revised. Parents, as team members, must be invited to attend these meetings. Parents can make suggestions for changes, can agree or disagree with the IEP goals, and agree or disagree with the placement.


If parents do not agree with the IEP and placement, they may discuss their concerns with other members of the IEP team and try to work out an agreement. There are several options, including additional testing, an independent evaluation, or asking for mediation (if available) or a due process hearing. They may also file a complaint with the state education agency.


Step 10. Child is reevaluated.

At least every three years the child must be reevaluated. This evaluation is often called a “triennial.” Its purpose is to find out if the child continues to be a “child with a disability,” as defined by IDEA, and what the child’s educational needs are. However, the child must be reevaluated more often if conditions warrant or if the child’s parent or teacher asks for a reevaluation.

In nutshell:

  General background information about the child.

  Assessment  of  current level of  functioning in specific skills.

  Goals and short term objective.

  Methods and material to achieve the objective.


1.     General Background Information About The Child

This data is collected  when the child is brought  to the school.

The information should be collected in the following areas:

·      Family background

·      Details about siblings

·      Socio-economic status

·      Pre-natal, natal post natal history

·      Developmental history

·      Other relevant factors.

2. Assessment of current level of functioning in specific skills

Assessment is the process of gathering and analyzing information in order to make instructional/administrative and/or guidance decision about or for an individual.                         - Wallac, Larson and Elkinson

Assessment is the most important component of I.E.P. because the whole programme depends on the assessment.

Norm Reference Test: N.R.T. is a standardized measure. Standardized test is a test in which the administration, scoring and interpretation procedures are set. Eg: Intelligence Test, Achievement Test.

Criterion Reference Test: C.R.T. compares student’s performance to a fixed criteria. In other words, C.R.T. is concerned with whether a child perform a skill as per the criteria set or not. Eg: Teacher made test.

The assessment of the current level of functioning  of the child must include:

·      Motor skills: Gross Motor, Fine Motor

·      Self Help Skills: Feeding (eating), Meal Time Activities, Toileting, Dressing, Grooming                                       

·      Language Skills:  Receptive language, Expressive language

·      Social Skills

·      Academics Skills: Reading, Writing, Number, Time, Money

·      Measurement

·      Domestic Skills (Skills performed in and around home)

·      Community Orientation Skills

·      Recreational Skills

·      Vocational Skills

3. Setting of goals

·      An Annual goal represent the achievement anticipated for a child in an academic year. It  is a prediction.

·      Goals represents the developmental areas or domains.

o   Eg: Rani will read English alphabet.  (Annual Goal)

Consideration to select Annual Goal

·      Child  Past  Achievement                

·      Present Level of Performance

·      The practicality  of the goals chosen

·      Ability of the child

·      Needs of the child

·      Functionally Relevant Goals

·      Priority Needs of the child

·      Amount of time required

·      Parental involvement

·      Teachers ability

Short Term Objectives

S.T.O. are the breaking down of annual goals in to similar units.S.T.O. are the specific curricular area derived from the goal which a teacher expects her student to learn over a period of short duration.

·      Writing behavioral objectives

·      Under what conditions will this behavior? (Condition)

·      Who is the person affected ? (Person)

·      What is the behavioral in question? (Behavior)

·      What level of performance is expected? (Criterion Level)

·      Deadline

4.     Teaching Methods,  Techniques And Material To Achieve The Objective

·      Play Way Method

·      Montessory Method

·      Project Method.


5.     Evaluation

In order to measure the student’s performance in terms of predetermined set of objectives evaluation is necessary. While evaluating the child for progress following must be kept in mind.

1.     There should not be bias on the part of the teacher .

2.     The evaluation must be quantitative and qualitative.

3.     There should be provision for written and verbal reports of the results.

4.     The evaluation must be continuous and should lead on to further planning of programs for the child.


5. Group educational program

Increasing diversity in the classroom has presented teachers with the challenge of providing appropriate reading instruction for all students in their classes, who may represent a variety of ability levels and cultures.

In contrast to past practices, more of today's students with disabilities are receiving reading instruction in a general education classroom instead of a special education classroom.

This practice can be expected to increase, since the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) provides support for educating students with disabilities in the general education classroom and ensuring their right to access the general education curriculum.

Under these conditions, teachers need to know the best ways of organizing their classrooms and grouping students for instruction in order to maximize student achievement.

Ability grouping, long a standard practice in reading instruction, has been criticized for lowering self-esteem and motivation among students with reading problems, and it often widens the gap between high and low achievers.

Research funded by the U.S. Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) has identified a number of alternatives to whole-class instruction and ability grouping and provided information about their effectiveness. Such grouping formats include:

The research shows that these alternative groupings produce better reading outcomes for students with and without disabilities than whole-class instruction.

Peer tutoring

Peer tutoring has repeatedly been found to be an effective method of teaching reading to students with disabilities. While one meta-analysis (Mathes & Fuchs, 1994) found that students with disabilities made greater gains in reading when they served as tutors, another (Elbaum, Vaughn, Hughes & Moody, 1999) found no difference between whether the students with disabilities served as tutor or tutee.

Furthermore, research has shown that students with disabilities can perform effectively either as tutors or tutees, as well as in a reciprocal tutoring role. Reciprocal-role tutoring may offer an additional benefit of boosting students' self-esteem through the teaching role. Use of this technique requires an understanding of the process, organizational planning, training of tutors, and careful monitoring.

Cross-Age Tutoring

A recent meta-analysis (Elbaum, Vaughn, Hughes, & Moody, 1999) revealed that students with disabilities derive considerable benefit from tutoring younger students. However, it shows less benefit for tutees, whether or not the tutors have disabilities. Students with disabilities who were tutored by older students did not appear to benefit academically from this type of tutoring.

Using this technique requires more planning, since students tutor children who are at least one grade level lower. Like peer tutoring, this technique involves tutor training and careful monitoring to ensure that both tutors and tutees are benefiting from the tutoring.

Small learning groups

Small group reading instruction has been shown by many research studies to be more effective than whole-class instruction, but most of these studies did not include students with disabilities. Breaking the class into teacher-led groups of 3 to 10 students helps students learn significantly more than when they are taught using whole-class instruction.

Smaller groups appear to be better- groups of 3 to 4 students are usually more efficient than larger groups of 5 to 7 students in terms of teacher and student time, lower cost, increased instructional time, increased peer interaction, and improved generalization of skills.

This practice requires teachers to plan and organize groups and to adapt instruction, methods, and materials for small group use. Benefits are greater when the materials are tailored to the needs of different students. Students with disabilities may require different materials and more direct instruction than students without disabilities.

Combined grouping formats

Using a combination of formats produces measurable reading benefits for students with disabilities. For example, a teacher may use whole-class instruction for a part of each period, and have students work in pairs for 2 days and in small groups for 2 days. Although combined formats have not yet been studied extensively, they appear to offer promise for inclusive teachers and their students.