Unit 5: Human Resource in Disability Sector

5.1 Concept and need of Human Resource in disability sector

5.2 Role of National Institutes

5.3 Role of International bodies

5.4 Role of NGOs and the Community












5.1 Concept and need of Human Resource in disability sector

Among the other factors of production, labour i.e. human resource is the most important factor. Every organisation depends not so much on either material or financial resources, but it mainly depends on the able and willing human resource for its growth and success. When the human resource are motivated to use their talents for creating new ideas, then there is no limit to what the people can accomplish. No other resource can do what a human resource do. All the other resources are inanimate and cannot act in the way how the human resource reacts. Compared to other resources, only human resource can help the organisation to attain sustained competitive advantages. Moreover, human resources appreciate in value by increasing experience and skills but other resources generally depreciate as the time goes on.

Human Resource development and Disability

Disability rehabilitation in India has a long past but a short scientific history. Groups and individuals initiated for betterment and improvement of the disabled person but unfortunately these efforts were individualistic and perhaps unorganized and ad-hoc in nature though they were committed to improve the condition of disabled persons. There was little concern for systematic and scientific efforts in this direction. Systematic efforts has started as of IYDP 1981.

Disability though to a large extent inherited, environment has a substantial role to play in growth and development. One can visualize disability Rehabilitation and HRD

The following model would explain the range of activities in relation to Human Resource

5.2 Role of National Institutes

Objectives of National Institutes

National Institutes are engaged in Human Resource Development in the field of disability, providing rehabilitation services to the Persons with Disabilities and undertaking Research and Development efforts. National Institutes also provide vocational skill training, placement and distribution of assistive aids and appliances to PwDs.

There are nine National Institutes under this Ministry working in the field of disability. National Institutes are autonomous bodies established for different types of disabilities.  These institutes are engaged in Human Resources Development in the field of disability, providing rehabilitation services to the persons with disabilities and Research and Development efforts:-

(i)      National Institute for the Empowerment of Persons with Visual Disabilities (NIEPVD), Dehradun

(ii)     Ali Yavar Jung National Institute of Speech and Hearing Disabilities (AYJNISHD), Mumbai

(iii)    National Institute for the Empowerment of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities  (NIEPID), Secunderabad

(iv)    National Institute for Empowerment of Persons with Multiple Disabilities (NIEPMD), Chennai

(v)     Pt. Deendayal Upadhyaya National Institute for Persons with Physical Disabilities (PDUNIPPD), Delhi

(vi)    Swami Vivekanand National Institute of the Rehabilitation Training and Research (SVNIRTAR), Cuttack.

(vii)   National Institute for Locomotor Disabilities (NILD), Kolkata

(viii)  Indian Sign Langauge Research & Training Centre (ISLRTC), New Delhi  

(ix)    National Institute of Mental Health and Rehabilitation (NIMHR), Sehore, Madhya Pradesh

The Persons with Multiple Disabilities have equal rights to lead a better quality of life. This may be enabled with committed professionalism, accessible environment, equal opportunities, positive attitudes and appropriate, affordable, acceptable and available technological interventions.

The mission is to provide need based comprehensive rehabilitation through team approach facilitating inclusion, ensuring empowerment of persons with Multiple Disabilities and their families and by substantiating field based research and development of human resources.

To meet the requirements of specific disabilities, Govt of India has established 7 National Institutes in specific disabilities under the Department. These are engaged in Human Resource Development, providing Rehabilitation Services to the persons with disabilities and Research & Development. These Institutes are engaged in Human Resource Development in the field of disability, providing rehabilitation services to the Persons with Disabilities and undertaking Research and Development efforts.


5.3 Role of International bodies

The UN Declaration on the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons6 and the Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons, adopted in the 1970s, were the first international instruments to set forth human rights principles relating specifically to persons with disabilities. The adoption of these instruments represented, at the time, progress in terms of situating disability rights on the international agenda. Nonetheless, these documents were soon seen as outdated by the disability community for their approach to disability as they reflected medical and charity models of disability which served to reinforce paternalistic attitudes (Oliver 1996). Progressively, the disability community supported a social model of disability, which offered a fundamental conceptual shift “away from focusing on the physical limitations of particular individuals to the way the physical and social environments impose limitations on certain groups or categories of people”.

On December 19, 2001, the UN General Assembly, with resolution 56/168, established an Ad Hoc Committee "to consider proposals for a comprehensive and integral international convention to promote and protect the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities, based on the holistic approach in the work done in the fields of social development, human rights and non-discrimination and taking into account the recommendations of the Commission on Human Rights and the Commission for Social Development."

The CRPD expressly recognizes that international cooperation supports national efforts to effectively implement States Parties’ obligations. States Parties are to cooperate internationally through partnerships with other States, and/or with relevant international and regional organizations and civil society in support of national measures to give effect to the CRPD. Specifically, Article 32 identifies a range of measures that States can take within the framework of international cooperation which include inter alia: (1) “capacity building, including through the exchange and sharing of information, experiences, training programs and best-practices”; (2) research programs and the facilitation of access to scientific knowledge; and (3) technical and economic assistance, including the facilitation of access to accessible and assistive technologies. In addition, Article 32 also states “that international cooperation, including international development programmes, is inclusive of and accessible to persons with disabilities,” thus Article 32 has important provisions not only for State Parties, but also for bilateral and multilateral development partners.

·        Working with the private sector and funding institutions to influence their policies and practices to include issues of disabilities and other development issues, specially the issues of women and children.

·        Working with UN and other international bodies for regular updates from all over the World.

·        Signing and ratification of different UN treaty and policy formulation to fulfill that obligations. The policies  should govern  the various laws and programmes. The proper budget allocation for implementation of those programmes.

·        Formulation of rules and provisions for the Corporate and privale sector to motivate them to join hands with the Govt. and NGOs for the development of the nation through a right based model.


5.4 Role of NGOs and the Community

In the present scenario, the term disability has undergone a sea change especially in the last few decades by what is popularly known as the social model of disability. So to deal with this growing concern affecting the nation, the NGO’s plays a proactive role in offering the necessary opportunities in empowering this nascent group.

·        Govt and NGOs should join hands at all levels.

·        Govt. must find out replicable models developed by the NGOs with an aim  to take up and implement the same throughout the country. The model should ensure inclusion with a special focus on women and children and reaching the unreached population.

·        Govt. must use /utilise the vast experience & expertise and the network of the NGO sector.

·        Institulisation of the good practices of NGOs in a systematic manner to bring changes in the life of the people.

·        Monitoring & evaluation should be done by the civil society.

·        Govt. shouls be trnsparent and accountable to the people.

In this era of globalization, the inclusion of the disabled in the country’s mainstream constitute a significant portion of the country’s population. The NGO’s who are known to be the key drivers of the society play a proactive role in helping the nascent group to acquire growth so that the disabled can contribute to the development of the country. Though it is not possible to provide employment to the entire disabled population, it is possible to impart the necessary vocational training, motivating them to become independent and self-sufficient. In achieving that, the role of NGO in empowering the disabled in India holds immense significance.

So, the NGO who acts as the vital organs of the civil society work towards creating a congenial climate and an environment free of barriers where the disabled can also lead a healthy life like its mainstream counterparts in the society.