Unit 4: Group Teaching and Teaching Learning Material (TLM)

4.1 Grouping Criteria and Grouping Classification

4.2 Organization of classroom and Lesson Plan Writing &Time Table Planning

4.3 Types of Group Teaching –. Individual Instruction in Group Teaching, Small & Large

4.4 Concept and type of Teaching materials and Learning materials, Functional Aids and Criteria for selecting appropriate TLM’s

4.5 Adaptation of Daily Living material, Principles of adaptation






4.1 Grouping Criteria and Grouping Classification

A classroom has been grouped when the one large group of students assigned to that classroom is divided into a set of smaller groups for some portion of the time they are in the classroom. While in operation, each small group is recognized and treated as a separate and distinct social entity by the teacher and the students in the classroom. To be considered instructional, the activities carried out by students in a small group must include learning of educational material.

Teachers place different configurations of students in classroom instructional groups, assign the groups different sorts of learning goals and tasks, evaluate student performance in different ways and maintain group membership for different periods of time. Several types of groups result. More effective teachers use more that one type of group.


·        Students with similar learning needs are brought together for a short time.

·        Students are assigned to groups based on need for additional help, time and practice in order to master the content and skills covered in a particular unit or lesson the teacher already has taught to the entire classroom group.

·        Students who have mastered the specific content and skills engage in enrichment activities.


Cooperative groups require students with diverse ability and characteristics to work together and learn from one another to accomplish assigned learning goals or tasks. Recent research has focused on three types of cooperative groups.


·        A small group of four to six diverse students is assigned a topic of study.

·        Different students are assigned subparts of the work to be done.

·        Completion of assigned tasks requires each student's work to be combined with that of other students to produce a group effort.

·        Students may be assigned to play different roles in the group process.

·        Task completion is contingent on cooperation.

·        The group's collective product is evaluated. Each student's performance is judged based on this evaluation and, in addition, may include an individual score for the subtask completed by the student.

·        Group membership changes for different assignments.

·        Generally, there is no inter-group competition.


·        A small group of four to six students with a cross section of characteristics is formed to teach information and skills.

·        Tasks assigned to groups emphasize material previously taught to the entire class by the teacher.

·        Peer tutoring approaches include:

TEAM ASSISTED INDIVIDUALIZATION: Each student receives an individual assignment based on learning needs. The team goal is to help one another complete assigned tasks successfully and to improve each student's performance on a quiz measuring skills and content covered in the student's individual assignment. Students receive individual scores. The team receives recognition based on amount each student's score exceeds average or past performance on skills and content covered in individual assignment.

Advantages of group teaching

·        To assure that all students learn

·        To increase student engagement in learning

·        To teach students how to work with others

·        To facilitate social interaction among students

·        To motivate students

·        To improve students' self-concepts and attitudes toward self and school

·        To teach students how to learn in a variety of ways

4.2 Organization of classroom and Lesson Plan Writing &Time Table Planning

Classroom Organization focuses on the physical environment. Effective teachers organize a safe classroom environment. They strategically place furniture, learning centers, and materials in order to optimize student learning and reduce distractions.

Effective class management is vital to having a classroom run smoothly. If an instructor cannot stay on task and apply adequate management to their classroom, then chances are they will not be successful in applying their curriculum either. Steps to be taken in applying classroom management are establishing set rules and routines, addressing potential disciplinary actions, developing relationships with and among students, and administering engaging education. It is a common misconception that adequate classroom management cannot be taught; it is quite possible through learning the most effective strategies and practice. Although effective class management is necessary in keeping a classroom organized and running smoothly, it is also important to maintain a personable disposition in doing so. This leads into creating a positive learning environment.

Furniture arrangements, location of materials, displays, and fixed elements are all part of organization. Effective teachers decorate the room with student work, they arrange the furniture to promote interaction as appropriate, and they have comfortable areas for working (Kohn, 1996). They also consider student needs in arranging the room by leaving space for wheelchairs to maneuver; having walkways so students can access materials, pencil sharpeners, and the trashcan with minimal disturbance to others; and organizing in such a way as to allow the teacher to freely move around the room to monitor student progress 

Teachers are observers of behavior and understand the rhythm of the classroom. Placing materials near the pencil sharpener may seem like a good idea, until one considers that at the start of a lesson this area may become congested with some students retrieving materials for their group and others waiting to use the pencil sharpener. However, the pencil sharpener and the trashcan may be a good pairing if the pencil sharpener tends to break regularly, spilling its contents on the floor; this way shavings fall into the trash instead. Effective teachers think about the little details that enhance the use of available space in the classroom as well as the big issues.

Planning a teaching program, teaching all placed in a pre-course exam. To help teachers to organize teaching and learning process according to the aim of the course is placed. So the lesson plan must include details of specific programs such as the intended concepts / principles of instructional content and learning activities. Instruction media Assessment / evaluation. And the period of the teaching. Everything must be included with the lesson plans organized.

Planning, teaching preparation before teaching. To achieve the learning objectives defined. Using data from the Survey of the problem, analyze the content, resources, analysis of the concept of learning objectives and learning activities and teaching evaluation. Then write out the plan in the form of lesson plans.

Lesson Planning. The activity of thinking and doing before the teacher started teaching any one subject. Typically consists of the goal. Content selection. The activities of teaching and learning of textbook selection, evaluation and documentation of equipment, printing course syllabus.

The importance of planning for teaching.

Lesson Planning. The work of teachers. Teaching success as well, or not much. Depending on the teaching plan is another key. If teachers are planning to teach well, it was already half goals to achieve. Lesson Planning is important as many.

1. The teachers teach with confidence, when confidence in teaching would be taught with a facility Follow the sequence of steps Uninterrupted because I have prepared everything ready. Teaching will be carried to the intended destination completely.

2. Making it a valuable teaching worth over time. Because teachers are teaching plans, goals and direction in teaching. Teaching is not a metaphysical Students will receive the knowledge, attitude, skill and thought the experience as a teaching plan. This makes it a valuable teaching and learning.

3. To meet the instructional program. This is because in the planning of teaching. Teachers must be graduates from both the purpose of teaching content to teaching, learning and teaching activities. The use of instructional media. And assessing. Then make out a lesson plan. When teachers teach the lesson. It would make the teaching to meet the goals and direction of the course.

4. To achieve the teaching, effective teaching is better than no plan, because in the planning of teaching teachers need to plan carefully for all components of teaching. Including establishment of time, place and other facilities that will facilitate the learning is a convenient and easier, so when planning instruction carefully and follow the lesson plan laid down. Effects of success would be better not plan to teach.

5. The teachers have documented a reminder. Can be used as a guide to teaching. Prevent the duplication of review and the way in or out through an assessment test to measure the learners. In addition to the teaching document provides guidance to those who teach in case needed. When teachers cannot teach itself. Students will gain knowledge and experience continuous

6. Makes the good attitudes toward school and teachers to classes. This is because the instructor. Along with teaching. As well as the psychological. And the availability of the material. Psychological readiness is confident in teaching Because teachers have prepared carefully taught. The availability of the material is. The teachers have prepared documents or materials to teach with only a. When the instructor ready to teach. Small teach with clear Make students understand clearly the lesson. And result in the student attitudes toward the instructor and the classes.

Teaching schedule.

Teaching is teaching schedule or plan instructional programs. Made from the curriculum and teachers guide. Or teaching approaches of the Department. Contents are the essence of the teaching period and weekly throughout the semester. Or an entire academic year the teachers know that every semester that Each week will have some teaching content. Which activities and in many lessons.

The importance of the teaching schedule.

Teaching schedule is long-term planning. Which need to be completed before school begins or a new academic year. Scheduling is important because it taught the following.

1. A guide for the teacher’s lesson plan is to prepare lesson plans need to see the main course is scheduled. Because it indicates the instruction set that. Each day of the week will be teaching any of the content or activities will teach the content of the lesson plan to teach each day, each day, each subject was taught to match the schedule.

2. You were taught to see the long-term plans. Know the content to be taught throughout the semester that is useful in preparing and planning work throughout the semester or an entire academic year.

3. Is useful to academic and management of the school in planning executive. Academic school, such as planning a schedule. Placed teachers. Documentation. Prepare final exam day Exam Preparation Materials. Prepare the library. Preparation classes. Preparation of various buildings and so on.


4.3 Types of Group Teaching –. Individual Instruction in Group Teaching, Small & Large

In a typical classroom, you’ll find students who are reading above their grade level and others who are behind. You might find that some learn best by working with other kids, while others prefer working alone. And some students need special help along the way to fill in areas where they struggle.

The best teachers reach all their students by giving the whole class a great experience. But they change up the material a bit for each student so everyone learns at their own pace.

Individualized instruction focuses on the needs of the individual student. Teaching is specific and targets one need at a time. This teaching method can be used on its own, or it can be part of differentiated teaching. Some students who receive individualized instruction need teachers to help them understand and learn. Other students using the same teaching method can skip topics they already know and go on to advanced information.

Special education is a great example of individualized instruction. Students who receive special education services have an Individualized Education Program ( IEP). Through an IEP, the school can meet their individual needs and provide accommodations just for them.

Differentiated Instruction

Differentiated Instruction is a teaching method for groups of students. 

Flexible groups are at the heart of differentiated instruction. The same students are not in the same group for every activity or assignment. Each student is moved around according to her abilities. Teachers design their lessons around the needs of each group. For example, one group might write a paragraph after listening to a reading, while another group puts on a skit. A third group might create a poster or an art project to show what they’ve learned. Students may read books on topics that are closely matched to their reading levels.


4.4 Concept and type of Teaching materials and Learning materials, Functional Aids and Criteria for selecting appropriate TLM’s

Importance of Teaching Aids

There is a popular saying about teaching and learning, which a special teacher should note:

·        What I hear, I forget

·        What I see, I remember

·        What I do , I understand (know )

Teaching aid is a smaller and narrower term than teaching material or instructional material.

“Teaching aid is an additional help, that we use while teaching a particular task.”

Teaching material can be widely used as textbook, handbook, lesson notes, programmes, references or sources material etc

They help students in self-study and even in their distance education programme.

  The teaching material are prepared by high level of experts or professional in their field of specialization.

   The teaching material covers the topics as per course or syllabus to be covered by the  students and teachers.

  They help only in teaching strategies with individual and groups.

  They help to teacher to make Teaching-Learning process interactive.

  When a teaching aid(any) is used for learning a concept it is technically referred to as teaching aids.

  Once a concept is learnt the utility of the specific learning aid is reduced.

   Planning, implementation and evaluation of the students are done with the help of these materials.

Teaching aids are useful to:

  reinforce what you are saying,

  ensure that your point is understood,

  signal what is important/essential,

  enable students to visualise or experience something that is impractical to see or do in real life,

  engage students’ other senses in the learning process,

  facilitate different learning styles.

Types of TLM

·        Visual Aids: “Visual  aid is a material which appeal the sense of  sight only.”

1.     Black Boards

2.     Models

3.     Charts, pictures

4.     Slides

5.     Bulletin Board

·        Audio- Visual Aids: “ Audio-visual aid are the material which appeal to the both sight and sound are called as Audio-visual aids.” It helps to make the learning more concrate, more realistic, and most dyanamic.

1.     Over Head Projector   

2.     Film Projector

3.     Television

4.     Video cassette player

·        Audio Aids: “Audio aid  is an electric device which gives out sound.”

1.     Tape Recorder

2.     Gramophone

3.     Radio

·        Activity Aids:

1.     Museum

2.     Garden

3.     Work shop

4.     Fair

5.     Kitchen

6.     Aquarium

7.     Exhibitions

Adaption In TLM for CWSN

·        A pad of sheets (paper) rather than loose sheets to a desk

·        Use of masking tape or a clipboard

·        Use of control board

·        Rubber strip on the back of a pad, use of magnetic board on iron desk to prevent slipping

·        Velcro to   items to a desk or wheelchair.

·        Use of pens and pencils that require less pressures

·        A rubber band around the shaft of the pens , a small ball over the writing instrument.

·        Use of typing aids such as a pointer stick to head

·        A line spacer that holds written materials while typing

·        Computer assisted programme for functional academics

·        Alternate keyboards offer several features such as providing a large letter by pad over them, standard key boards, removing the need for simultaneous key provision

·        Touch sensitive screens also to enable to respond to instruction and question by touching specific areas of the screen

·        Oral responses-speech synthesizers voice the responses that student with severe speech impairment type on the computer

·        Communication boards allow the student to indicate their response

Selection of Teaching Material and Aids

·        Age Appropriate

·        Suited to the level of learner

·        Motivate Children with mental retardation in learning

·        Readily available

·        Prepared from local resources

·        Inexpensive

·        Accurate in representation of facts

·        Attractive, symmetrical and colorful for children

·        Prepared in easy and simple language

·        Easy in manipulation in class

·        Appropriate in size

·        Related to curriculum

·        Easy enough to make complex and difficult concepts

4.5 Adaptation of Daily Living material, Principles of adaptation

Due to a disability or after sustaining an injury, one may find it difficult to perform activities of daily living (ADLs).

Bathing, dressing, grooming, toileting, and feeding are self-care activities that are including in the spectrum of activities of daily living (ADLs).

Occupational therapists will help you develop skills needed to complete your ADLs as independently as possible.

It may also be necessary to use adaptive equipmenthttps://ir-na.amazon-adsystem.com/e/ir?t=priceml-20&l=ur2&o=1 (AE) to perform your ADLs. Adaptive equipment are devices that are used to assist with completing activities of daily living.

Some of the most common activities of daily living are:

* Dressing
* Bathing
* Toileting
* Grooming & Hygiene

* Feeding The amount of assistance needed to perform ADLs varies from person to person depending current strength and range of motion, functional abilities, health status and medical diagnosis and precautions.

Activities of Daily Living

Adaptive equipment for dressinghttps://ir-na.amazon-adsystem.com/e/ir?t=priceml-20&l=ur2&o=1

Upper Body Dressing

Upper body dressing (UBD) includes putting on and taking off any clothing items from the waist up. For the individual with paraplegia, the upper extremities (arms) are usually functioning properly, and UBD is usually completed without difficulty. However, sitting balance and safety precautions should be addressed before attempting UBD from the edge of the bed or while sitting without support on any surface. If balance is impaired, it may be easier to sit in a wheelchair or standard chair for additional back support. If a brace is worn around the torso, loose garments with front closures are suggested. Additionally, comfortable, wrinkle-resistant clothes allow for easier application and neat appearance.

Upper body dressing techniques depend on several factors including:

* Amount of movement in the arms
* Strength of active arm muscles
* Sitting balance and endurance
* Fine motor coordination/hand strength

A person may be able to use adapted techniques/adapted clothing, adaptive equipment and/or splints to increase independence when doing UBD.

Lower body dressing

Lower body dressing (LBD) includes putting on and taking off any clothing item from the waist down. When dressing the lower body, persons with a paraplegic level of injury might find it helpful to use a combination of alternative techniques and adaptive equipment. The most common position for performing LBD is circle sitting or long sitting in bed. This allows the person to reach his/her feet from a large base of support, which increases balance.

Some of the most commonly used pieces of adaptive equipment (AE) used during dressing include

* Dressing sticks
* Reachers
* Long-handled shoe horns
* Button hooks
* Velcro®
* Elastic shoe laces
* Sock aids
* Legs straps

Bathing - Adaptive equipment for bathinghttps://ir-na.amazon-adsystem.com/e/ir?t=priceml-20&l=ur2&o=1

In the first few days or weeks following injury, you will most likely sponge bathe from bed. This process may seem complicated if a brace must be worn or if other medical complications are present. Once you are medically stable and cleared for showering by the doctor, your occupational therapist will help you learn to shower safely. You may use some of the following to assist with safety and completion of your bath:

* Tub chair/tub bench with a back
* Transfer board
* Hand held shower
* Long handled sponge
* Grab bars
* Thermometer

You may use some of the following to assist with safety and completion of your bath:

* Shower chair (with tilt/recline feature)
* Transfer board or mechanical lift
* Hand held shower
* Universal-cuffs or other splints to assist with holding items
* Wash mitt
* Thermometer

This is just a small sampling of the equipment that may be used to increase independence with bathing. Your occupational therapist will help you develop a bathing program appropriate for your discharge environment.

Toileting - Adaptive equipment for toiletinghttps://ir-na.amazon-adsystem.com/e/ir?t=priceml-20&l=ur2&o=1

Toileting includes the ability to pull down clothing in preparation for elimination, cleaning of the perineal area and pulling clothing up after completion. A person is often able to independently complete the process with the correct technique and needed equipment.

Examples include:

* Leaning on one elbow to raise a hip and pull down clothing from side to side
* Drop-arm bedside commode for safe transfers
* Toilet aid to reach perineal area
* Leg straps to assist lifting legs

Toileting for an individual with a tetraplegic level of injury is usually difficult and unique for each person. Your occupational therapist will develop a specialized toileting program for patients/caregivers for the discharge environment.

Grooming - Adaptive equipment for groominghttps://ir-na.amazon-adsystem.com/e/ir?t=priceml-20&l=ur2&o=1

Grooming tasks include brushing teeth, washing face, combing hair, shaving and applying make-up. As with UBD, a person with aparaplegic level of injury usually has full use of their arms and grooming is completed without difficulty from a wheelchair as long as items are in reach. For a person with a tetraplegic level of injury, grooming becomes more difficult and is usually completed in a supported seated position in bed or in a wheelchair.

Necessary AE and orthotics may include:

* Universal-cuff to hold toothbrush, razor, make-up, etc.
* ADL wrist splint to stabilize wrist
* Wash mitt
* Long handled brush
* Lap tray
* Built-up handles

Once you can tolerate a sitting position, your occupational therapist will help you practice techniques to complete these activities as independently as possible.

Feeding - Adaptive equipments for eatinghttps://ir-na.amazon-adsystem.com/e/ir?t=priceml-20&l=ur2&o=1

Feeding, like upper body dressing and grooming, is usually not difficult for a person with a paraplegic level of injury. This activity, however, can be difficult for a person with a tetraplegic level of injury. Feeding is usually done in a supported seated position in bed with a bedside table or from wheelchair level with a lap tray. There are several splints and pieces of adaptive equipment available to assist with this process.

These items include:
* Universal-cuff to hold utensils
* ADL wrist splint to stabilize wrist
* Non-skid bowl
* Plate guard
* Scoop dish
* Adaptive utensils
* Long straw
* Mobile arm supports


1. The adaptive curriculum is designed for all students in all educational settings.

2. The adaptive curriculum accepts students diversity, as reflected in individual differences, to be a key consideration as teacher’s plan. 

·        It is acknowledged that students come to the classroom with significant differences in cultural backgrounds, aptitudes, interests, abilities and achievement levels which must be accommodated through adaptation to curriculum content, instructional strategies, and the learning environment if all are to benefit equitably from the approved programmes.

3.     The adaptive curriculum assumes that there is an interrelationship among the variables associated with adaptation. 

·        Adaptation to accommodate learning styles necessitate adjustments to instructional approaches and assessment practices. 

·        Adaptation to evaluation practices may be necessitated by changes to the amount, type, and time frame for students to explore the curriculum. 

·        Adaptation in curriculum, instruction, and assessment practices may require changes in resource requirements, support personnel, and classroom organization.

4.     The adaptive curriculum requires the teacher to attend the learner, the learning task, and the learning environment in optimizing learning opportunities for students. 

·        It is understood that adaptation considers the student’s developmental level, the specific needs, the interests, and the learning styles, the demands of the learning task, the significant aspects of learning environment, and the knowledge, skills, and abilities of the teacher.

5.     The adaptive curriculum recognizes that students approach learning in multiple ways. 

·        Teachers should know about differences in learning styles and regard adaptations designed to accommodate differences as an expected part of their teaching responsibilities.

6.     The adaptive curriculum recognizes the importance of careful collaborative preplanning for instruction. 

·        Preplanning, which may involve consultation with students, parents/ guardians, and other professionals, is fundamental to structuring adaptations to maximize students’ potential as independent learners.

7.     The adaptive curriculum requires that assessment practices align with the curricular and instructional adaptation provided for the student. 

·        Assessment practices must be adapted to be consistent with curricular and instructional adaptations. 

·        It is expected that learners will be familiar with current research and the best practices for diagnosis of student needs, assessment of student learning, and evaluation of all aspects of student development.