Unit I: Nature and Emerging Priorities of Education

1.1. Meaning, Definition and Scope of Education

1.2. Aims and objectives of general education and special education with reference to pre-primary and elementary level(Primary and uppper primary)

1.3. Value education

1.4. Gender-equity (women’s education) with particular reference to special education

1.5. Prevocational education







1.1. Meaning, Definition and Scope of Education

Education, like philosophy is also closely related to human life. Therefore, being an important life activity education is also greatly influenced by philosophy. Various fields of philosophy like the political philosophy, social philosophy and economic philosophy have great influence on the various aspects of education like educational procedures, processes, policies, planning and its implementation, from both the theoretical and practical aspects.


Etymological Meaning of Education

Etymologically , the word ‘Education’ has been derived from different Latin words.

a)   ‘Educare’   which means   ‘to bring out’   or   ‘to nourish’ .

b)   ‘Educere’   which means   ‘to lead out’   or   ‘to draw out’ .

c)   ‘Educatum’   which means   ‘act of teaching’ or ‘training’.

d)   ‘Educatus’   which means   ‘to bring up, rear, educate’.

e) ‘ Educatio ‘ which means   “a breeding, a bringing up, a rearing.”


Education in the largest sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mindcharacter or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledgeskills and values from one generation to another.

Definitions of Education

Since time immemorial, education is estimated as the right road to progress and prosperity. Different educationists’ thoughts from both Eastern and Western side have explained the term ‘education’ according to the need of the hour. Various educationists have given their views on education. Some important definitions are:

1.   Mahatma Gandhi : “By Education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in man – body, mind and spirit.”

2.   Rabindranath Tagore : “Education enables the mind to find out the ultimate truth, which gives us the wealth of inner light and love and gives significance to life.”

3.   Dr. Zakir Husain : “Education is the process of the individual mind, getting to its full possible development.”

4.   Swami Vivekananda : “Education is the manifestation of divine perfection already existing in man.”

5.   Aristotle: “Education is the creation of sound mind in a sound body.”

6.   Rousseau: “Education is the child’s development from within.”

Nature of Education

As is the meaning of Education, so is its nature. It is very complex. Let us now discuss the nature of Education:

1.   Education is a life-long process:   Education is a continuous and lifelong process. It starts from the womb of the mother and continues till death. It is the process of development from infancy to maturity. It includes the effect of everything which influences human personality.

2.   Education is a systematic process:   It refers to transact its activities through a systematic institution and regulation.

3.   Education is development of individual and the society :   It is called a force for social development, which brings improvement in every aspect in the society.

4.   Education is modification of behavior:   Human behavior is modified and improved through educational process.

5.   Education is purposive:   Every individual has some goal in his life. Education contributes in attainment of that goal. There is a definite purpose underlined all Educational activities.

6.   Education is training:   Human senses, mind, behavior, activities; skills are trained in a constructive and socially desirable way.

7.   Education is instruction and direction:   It directs and instructs an individual to fulfill his desires and needs for exaltation of his whole personality.

8.   Education is life:   Life without Education is meaningless and like the life of a beast. Every aspect and incident needs education for its sound development.

9.   Education is continuous reconstruction of our experiences:   As per the definition of John Dewey Education reconstructs and remodels our experiences towards socially desirable way.

10.   Education helps in individual adjustment:   A man is a social being. If he is not able to adjust himself in different aspects of life his personality can’t remain balanced. Through the medium of education he learns to adjust himself with the friends, class fellows, parents, relations, neighbors and teachers etc.

11.   Education is balanced development:   Education is concerned with the development of all faculties of the child. It performs the functions of the physical, mental, aesthetic, moral, economic, spiritual development of the individual so that the individual may get rid of his animal instincts by sublimating the same so that he becomes a civilized person.

12.   Education is a dynamic process :   Education is not a static but a dynamic process which develops the child according to changing situations and times. It always induces the individual towards progress. It reconstructs the society according to the changing needs of the time and place of the society.

13.   Education is a bipolar process :   Education is a bipolar process in which one personality acts on another to modify the development of other person. The process is not only conscious but deliberate.

14.   Education is a three dimensional process:   “All Educations proceeds by participation of the individual in the social consciousness of the race.” Thus it is the society which will determine the aims, contents and methods of teachings. In this way the process of Education consists of 3 poles – the teacher, the child and the society.

15.   Education as growth:   The end of growth is more growth and the end of Education is more Education. “An individual is a changing and growing personality.” The purpose of Education is to facilitate the process of his/her growth.

Therefore, the role of Education is countless for a perfect society and man. It is necessary for every society and nation to bring holistic happiness and prosperity to its individuals.

Scope of education

Scope means range of view out look field or opportunity of activity operation and application. Education has a wider meaning and application.


·        Educational philosophy: Philosophy of education covers aims of education, nature of education, importance of education, function of education its very old and essential part of education.


·        Educational psychology: Main aim of education is the development of child. Psychology helps to understand the child better and development of child with respect of physical, mental, emotional, social adjustment,  individual difference, personality, thinking, reasoning, problem solving.


·        Educational sociology: A child lives in the society so its important for him to know about the society the nature of society, type of society, interdependence between culture and society.


·        History of education: It is also important to know background, origin, development, growth and aspect of the subjects. And also education system method of teaching during ancient period, medieval period, British period and modern period.


·        Economics of education: For the growth of business and market the world class economical education is important for each and important.


·        Method of teaching: In ancient time the pupil were passive listeners but now they actively participate with the teacher in the process of education. So the skill and proficiency of difference teaching methods needs to be developed.


·        Educational administration and supervision: The educational institution and the system has to be supervised  and administrated smoothly so that the process of education goes well. Regulation of fund, democratic administration, autonomy, personnel management etc.


·        Problems of education: This scope includes problems of  teaching management of education and also suggestion and remedies for it.


·        Population education: Viewing at the undesirable growth of population, an awareness is created through population education.


·        Environmental education: Ecological in balances have drown the attentions of intelligence today. So looking at the environmental problems study of environment education has great importance.


1.2. Aims and objectives of general education and special education with reference to pre-primary and elementary level(Primary and uppper primary)

As a fundamental component of all academic programs, General Education is the foundation supporting student acquisition of skills in communication, analysis, mathematical reasoning, and synthesis. General Education provides students with transferrable skills that prepare them to gain knowledge, acquire new competencies, and broaden their perspectives so that they may better adapt to the needs of a changing society.

The aim of education is to bring desirable changes in the behaviours of the learner. It helps in the all round development of a child’s personality and inclusion of healthy attitudes and good values. Since education changes according to the changing needs of the society, the aims of education also varies from time to time in the same society. The aims and objectives are not uniform for all stages of education. There are differences in aims and objectives of primary, secondary and higher education due to variance of age and maturity experiences, physical, mental and emotional growth of the child.

In our country, education has been a state subject but now it has been put on the concurrent list i.e. shared by the central government. This has been done with a view to achieve the target of free and compulsory primary education. Because it is clearly directed in Article 45 of the Indian constitution that the provision of Universal, Free and Compulsory Education becomes the joint responsibility of the centre and the state.

Primary education is the stage where education touches at every point, Thus, it has to do more with national ideology and character than any other single activity. The objectives of primary education should be visualized against the background of its ultimate ends and purpose.

The primary stage is very crucial stage in the life of the child. So, The objectives of primary education are different from those in the middle stage of education. At the primary level the child’s curiosity, creativity and activity in general should not be restricted by a rigid and unattractive methods of teaching and learning.

The objectives of primary education are as follows:

Literacy: The child should learn the first language the mother-tongue to a level where he can communicate his ideas easily.

Numeracy: The child should develop ability in four fundamental numerical operations and to be able to apply these to solve problems in his daily life.

Technicracy: The child should learn the method of inquiry in science and should begin to appreciate science and technology.

Nationalism: The child should develop a respect for national symbols like the flag and the anthem and should know about learn to dislike to casteism, untouchability and communalism.

Human dignity: The child should develop healthy attitudes towards human labour and dignity.

Sanitary habits: The child should develop habits of cleanliness and healthful living and an understanding of the proper sanitation and hygiene of the neighborhood.

Aestetic Sense: The child should acquire a taste for the good and beautiful and should take care of its surroundings.

The NCERT (1977) has laid down the following objectives of elementary Education:

1. To acquire the tools for formal learning namely literacy, numeracy and manual skills.

2. To acquire the habits of cooperative behaviours within the family, school and community.

3. To develop social responsibility by inculcating habits.

4. To appreciate the culture and life styles of persons of other religions, regions and countries.

Special Education

Special education refers to a range of educational and social services provided by the public school system and other educational institutions to individuals with disabilities who are between three and 21 years of age.

Goals and Objectives

The ultimate goal of special education shall be the integration or mainstreaming of learners with special needs into the regular school system and eventually in the community.

Special education shall aim to develop the maximum potential of the child with special needs to enable him to become self-reliant and shall be geared towards providing him with the opportunities for a full and happy life.

The specific objectives of special education shall be the development and maximization of learning competencies, as well as the inculcation of values to make the learners with special needs a useful and effective member of society.


1.3. Value education

Meaning of Value-Education:

The very purpose and main function of education is the development of an all round and well-balanced personality of the students, and also to develop all dimensions of the human intellect so that our children can help make our nation more democratic, cohesive, socially responsible, culturally rich and intellectually competitive nation.

But, nowadays, more emphasis is unduly laid on knowledge-based and information-oriented education which takes care of only the intellectual development of the child.

Consequently, the other aspect of their personality like physical, emotional, social and spiritual are not properly developed in providing for the growth of attitudes, habits, values, skills and interests among the pupils. It is here that we talk in terms of value-education. A complete description of what value-education is, could entail a study in itself.

Value- education, is thus concerned to make morality a living concern for students. Hence, what is needed is value-education. Despite many educators and educationists description regarding value-education, it cannot be denied that continuing research will continue to making the description of value- education more adequate.

According to C. V. Good — ”Value-education is the aggregate of all the process by means of which a person develops abilities, attitudes and other forms of behaviour of the positive values in the society in which he lives.”

Objectives of Value-Education:

Traditionally the objectives of value-education were based on religion and philosophy. There was no secular value-education; but in today’s modern world, this has been taken as very much essential.

Accordingly, the objectives for value-education may be taken up as follows:

1. Full development of child’s personality in its physical, mental, emotional and spiritual aspects,

2. Inculcation of good manners and of responsible and cooperative citizenship.

3. Developing respect for the dignity of individual and society.

4. Inculcation of a spirit of patriotism and national integration.

5. Developing a democratic way of thinking and living.

6. Developing tolerance towards and understanding of different religious faiths.

7. Developing sense of brotherhood at social, national and international levels.

8. Helping pupils to have faith in themselves and in some supernatural power that, is supposed to control this universe and human life.

9. Enabling pupils to make decisions on the basis of sound moral principles

10. Evolving the evaluation criteria on value-education.

11. Suggesting measures for better utilisation of value-education.

12. Finding out the interests of pupils in relation to different aspects and activities of value-education.

13. Clarifying the meaning and concept of value-education.

Really speaking, value-education influences all aspects of a person’s growth and development. Thus, value- education consequently, is an integral part of education which cannot be separated from the educational process. Value-education has to be placed, therefore, at the centre of the educational endeavour.

Schools should be induced to create a climate of values which should run various activities and would be conducive to the promotion of values among students, teachers, parents and educational administrators. Programmes of value- education should incorporate values of integral personality in all its dimensions — physical, vital, intellectual, aesthetic, ethical and spiritual.

1.4. Gender-equity (women’s education) with particular reference to special education

The lack of recognition of the rights of persons with disability is a serious challenge in bringing about equality in education. There’s a complicated relationship between disability and gender. Many gender and education researchers have highlighted the double oppressions of women with disabilities due to their gender and disabling conditions but have paid very little attention to full integration of the rights of persons with disability in education research.

Barriers to Education

Girls with disabilities confront multiple barriers to obtaining an equitable education or, indeed, any education at all. Attitudinal barriers, such as gender bias compounded by disability bias, seem to be the most formidable. However, other barriers are almost as significant.

Cultural Bias and Rigid Gender Roles

The most frequently mentioned barrier to education for girls with disabilities is cultural bias against women, leading to preferential treatment and allocation of resources and opportunities to male children at the expense of their sisters. Education, respondents noted, is deemed less important for girls, who are expected to become wives and mothers. Boys, destined to become breadwinners, are given priority in schooling.

Economics often becomes intertwined with gender roles. In impoverished families, the limited resources available will be used to educate the boys, with the expectation that they will ultimately help support the family. Girls are not likely to be educated, particularly girls who are disabled and need costly disability-related equipment or special transportation.

Issues of Violence and Safety While violence is a barrier to education for all girls, it may be more of an issue for girls with disabilities. Available data suggest that girls who are disabled experience violence within the family, institutions, and community at higher rates than do their nondisabled peers; and the violence they face may be more chronic and severe, including the withholding of essential care. Part of the explanation for this may be the disability itself, making it more difficult for some girls to assess violent situations or defend themselves. They also may not know how to flee or how or to whom to report incidents of violence. However, negative cultural attitudes may be a greater danger than ignorance. Often perceived as sick, helpless, asexual, and powerless, girls with disabilities are seen as easy targets. They also are regularly deprived of the skills and opportunities they need to recognize and address violence, including adequate sex education. Finally, the police and community members may fail to respond appropriately to incidents of violence against girls who are disabled, doubting the credibility of the reporter.

Distance to School Distance to school constitutes an educational barrier for many girls, partly because of safety and cultural prohibitions against females traveling unescorted. For girls with disabilities, such barriers are intensified.

Tools for Empowerment:

Non-governmental organizations can play a powerful role in counteracting the cycle of oppression through which disabled women are denied access to support and resources that would empower them to reach their potential and contribute to the community.

Some of the recommendations to NGOs to more effectively include women with disabilities:

       Disability organizations, leadership training projects and independent living services must collect data on involvement of women and girls with disabilities and conduct specific outreach efforts to include women with disabilities.

       Mainstream organizations must support and work in partnership with organizations led by women with disabilities.

       Women with disabilities must be involved in all policy and decision making processes, and at every level of the projects: as staff, volunteers, participants, and evaluators.

       Education, vocational training and rehabilitation programs must include women with disabilities, to prepare women and girls for careers and gainful employment.

       Rehabilitation and adaptive technology must be available for women with disabilities, and women with disabilities must be involved in the development and production of adaptive devices.

       Health service personnel must be trained to offer informed and sensitive service and education addressing the health needs of girls and women with disabilities. Non-governmental organizations must work with women with disabilities to pressure governments to effectively implement the recommendations, which have been made over the years by various UN bodies and non-governmental organizations, particularly at the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995.

       Entrepreneurship development cum pre vocational training cum Vocational Training cum placement multipurpose centers to promote self and group employment (with a cross disability approach) for women need to establish at least one in each Taluk/block level with hostel facilities. After successful training and placement in the open employment/self or group employment independent living houses need to be supported by the government. Such houses should be identified from the government housing projects and houses in the ground floor with accessibility should be provided in addition to providing loans to purchase accessible taxi/auto rickshaw/cycle rickshaws for commuting to the work place. NGO’s who are interested in building such housing facility for workingwomen with disabilities need to be supported with grants.

1.5. Prevocational education

Vocational Education and Training (VET) in India is being made aspirational by mobilising greater participation of youth, assessing skill gaps for reducing the mismatch between the demand and supply of skilled manpower, main streaming vocational education in schools, polytechnic, colleges, and universities, encouraging private participation through publicprivate partnerships,recognising prior learning of skilled workers through assessment and certification, encouraging participation of workers to opt for skill development courses offered through specialised training Institutes and defining clear career pathways for a variety of skill training programmes offered through institutions under the National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF).

A comprehensive National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship was formulated in 2015 and a Skill India Mission was set up by Government of India, with the objective of training 400 million people by 2022. State Skill Development Missions (SDM) has been set up by various states to work out an integrated strategy for skill development and enhancing the employability of youth in the state. Public-private Partnership (PPP) model, led by National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), which was established in 2009, is now driving the skill development activities in policy planning, infrastructure development, development of national occupation standards, training, assessment and certification. The NSDC has a mandate to skill 150 million people by 2022 in 20 high growth sectors identified by the Government of India.