Unit 5: Vocational Level

5.1 Curriculum domains on daily living skills – routine, travel, creative, appropriate interpersonal relation– employer/co-worker. Job related behaviour– punctuality, regularity, suitable behaviour

5.2 Curriculum domains on Occupational skills – related to the job chosen (inclusive of functional academics). Health/safety skills – understanding danger – uses sharp objects, safety, uses household electrical items – First Aid.

5.3 Vocational habilitation of persons with mental retardation – Transition from school to work, types of employment opportunities

5.4 Social skills required at various developmental stages, suited to occasions – social competencies required for independent living in persons with mental retardation.

5.5 Recreation and leisure– need–age appropriate activities – individuals and group situations for persons with mental retardation.

5.1 Curriculum domains on daily living skills – routine, travel, creative, appropriate interpersonal relation– employer/co-worker. Job related behaviour– punctuality, regularity, suitable behaviour

Curriculum for vocational education can be defined as a systematic organization of instructional content designed to provide students with a sequence of meaningful vocational and related activities conducted by an agency for the benefit of the student for an economically useful vocation.

It prepares the learners for jobs that are based in manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic in nature, and related to specific trade, occupation or vocation.

Also, In terms of development of adaptable vocational curriculum, there should be account of an individual’s cognitive capacities, needs, abilities as well as his/her interests.

Vocational curriculum methods include questionnaires, analysis of basic vocational behaviors and direct observations of community job situations.

While preparing the curriculum for vocational education, a combination of all these methods can be been used. After identifying the suitable job, important areas of curriculum are identified by conducting interviews and collecting questionnaire response from employers, supervisors and others regarding the requirement of the specific skills for employment success.


·        To develop and exhibit an understanding and enhance current level of aspects related to self.

·        To learn and apply occupational skills.

·        To imbibe work appropriate behaviors and expectations as well as complete the level appropriate work.

·        To develop skills and competencies of employability.

·        To develop an understanding of self advocacy and its related skills.

·        To develop skills related to leisure and recreation.

Domains of Curriculum Development

1.     Basic Academics

2.     Occupational

3.     Workplace behavior

4.     Employability

5.     Self- advocacy

6.     Leisure time and recreational activities

1. Basic Academics

a)    Self-Awareness

                                i.            Tells own name, address and phone numbers

                             ii.            Aware of own age and Date of birth

                           iii.            Knows emergency helpline numbers

                           iv.            Aware of own interests and abilities

b)    Family information

                                i.            Tells name and contact information of family members

                             ii.            Tells contact information of family members in case of emergency

c)     Job-site information

                                i.            Designation

                             ii.            Tells the address and phone numbers of job site(s)

                           iii.            Recognizes coworkers by name

                           iv.            Writes leave letter

                             v.            Familiar with the workplace infrastructure

                           vi.            Uses clock/watch to follow work schedule


d)   Personal finance

                                i.            Identifies money

                             ii.            Is able to do basic cash transactions

                           iii.            Knows basic banking (withdrawal, deposits and e-banking)

2. Occupational

a)     Independent travelling

                                                              i.      Identifies route to and from work

                                                           ii.      Identifies traffic signals

                                                         iii.      Follows traffic rules independently

b)    Dresses appropriately

                                                              i.      Wears clean and proper dress which is appropriate to the situation independently

c)     Maintains personal hygiene

                                                              i.      Shaves regularly/maintains menstrual hygiene

                                                           ii.      Keeps fingernails neat

                                                         iii.      Takes care of toilet needs

                                                         iv.      Takes clean food and follows meal time manners

3. Workplace Behavior

a)    Etiquettes and manners

a)     Respects supervisor

b)    Cooperates with coworkers

c)     Controls emotions

d)    Requests help if necessary

e)     Respects others belongings and takes care of personal belongings

b)    Communication and social behavior

a)     Maintains friendship

b)    Follows instructions

c)     Communicates needs

d)    Uses mobile phone

e)     Knows basic social dealings and greetings

f)      Accept criticism

g)     Joins social activities in the workplace

c)     Regularity and punctuality

a)     Comes to work regularly and on time

b)    If late, follows job site rules

c)     Informs when takes leave and provides reason

d)    Follows departure routine

d)    Quality and quantity of work

a)     Completes assigned work effectively and efficiently

b)    Allows improvement in quality of work

c)     Reports work problems

d)    Keeps work area clean

4. Employability

a)    Career preparation

a)     Preparation of bio data and portfolio

b)    Development of soft skills(interview skills- appearance, body language, confidence and fluent communication skills)

b)    Job exploration

a)     Visits job sites

b)    Maintains contacts

c)     Looks at advertisements and fixes interview independently

d)    Discusses with parents and friends

5. Self-Advocacy

a)    Basic rights

a)     Appeals when rights are denied

b)    Aware of need of voting

c)     Asks for explanation

d)    Aware of right of an employee(wages, leave and leisure)

e)     Expresses freely the needs and rights

b)    Decision making

a)     Aware of what’s happening in society

b)    Looks at alternatives/choices

c)     Decides while voting

c)     Organizing self-advocacy groups

a)     Arranges and conducts meeting and activities with friends(like minded individuals)

b)    Discusses own problems

c)     Finds solutions

d)    Visits the other group members who need support

e)     Plans and chooses appropriate activities

6. Leisure time and Recreational Activities

a)    Communicates his/her interest outside of work

b)    Is able to pursue his/her interest areas independently

c)     Plans and goes out with friends and families

d)   Attends religious functions and ceremonies

5.2 Curriculum domains on Occupational skills – related to the job chosen (inclusive of functional academics). Health/safety skills – understanding danger – uses sharp objects, safety, uses household electrical items – First Aid.

The curriculum is intended for supported employment agencies, community vocational rehabilitation programs, high-school transition programs, and other organizations and companies that place in jobs or hire workers with disabilities. The curriculum can help teach students or consumers/employees the foundational job safety and health skills that all workers need. The curriculum uses highly interactive and fun learning activities to teach the following skills, which are general, transferable, and can apply across all jobs and industries. These skills (core competencies) are the ability to:

1. Recognize that, while work has benefits, all workers can be injured, become sick, or even be killed on the job. Workers need to know how workplace risks can affect their lives and their families.

2. Recognize that work-related injuries and illnesses are predictable and can be prevented.

3. Identify hazards at work, evaluate risk, and predict how workers can be injured or made sick.

4. Recognize how to prevent injury and illness. Describe the best ways to address workplace hazards and apply these concepts to specific workplace problems.

5. Identify emergencies at work and decide on the best ways to address them.

6. Recognize employer and worker rights and responsibilities that play a role in safe and healthy work.

7. Find resources that help keep workers safe and healthy on the job.

8. Demonstrate how workers can communicate with others—including people in authority roles—to ask questions or report problems or concerns when they feel unsafe or threatened.

Accommodating a worker with a disability may require additional planning to reduce a hazard. For example, a person with limited hearing may not hear some alarms, so to reduce the hazard, the employer could install a flashing light.

The input of a worker with a disability is invaluable. Like other workers who know the hazards of their job, a worker with a disability understands how he or she is affected by different work environments. As mentioned, when possible a worker with a disability should accompany the hazard assessment team, or at least offer feedback on proposed solutions before those solutions are implemented.

What can be done to make the workplace safer?

Here are some examples of disabilities some workers experience, and a few suggestions to change the workplace and make it safer. This is not an exhaustive list, and each change must be evaluated to ensure it meets individual needs before it is implemented.

Mobility. As mentioned, not all people with mobility issues need a wheelchair. Some people use canes, crutches or walkers, while others may not require aids, but are still unable to move quickly. Removing thick carpet and ensuring proper cleaning can help workers with mobility issues. Doorways that open automatically or with a button reduce complications when moving between rooms. Doorways (especially emergency exits) should be at least 36 inches wide.

Hearing limitations. A flashing light alarm should be installed in work areas, including bathrooms, for alarms and announcements. Where a flashing alarm system is not practical, a co-worker should be assigned to ensure that anyone with hearing impairments is made aware of what is happening in the workplace.

Vision impairment. Installing tactile ground surface indicators can help guide people though the workplace. When approaching stairs or doorways, a slight modification or change in the terrain (for example, a change from carpet to tile, or from tile to dimpled tile), or brightly colored tape helps workers identify where they are and what to expect.

Emergency preparedness. While most of these design changes can help in day-to-day operations, it is crucial that emergency and evacuation plans take the abilities of all workers into account. If necessary, a buddy system can be included in evacuation protocols, so that at least two other workers are assigned to guiding and assisting workers who require assistance during an emergency.

Evacuation procedures should be evaluated and discussed with all workers, as they will know best what assistance, equipment and adjustments they require. People who are in charge during an emergency (such as fire wardens) should be aware of any worker with a disability that may reduce his or her ability to flee, should the need arise.


5.3 Vocational habilitation of persons with mental retardation – Transition from school to work, types of employment opportunities

Work is a central part of adult life, consuming as much as half of our waking hours. People often identify themselves by the work that they do. A job can provide a sense of accomplishment and pride and have an enormous effect on our overall life satisfaction, or it can serve as a source of frustration and dissatisfaction. Finding the right job—simply knowing what it might be—is not easy, even for highly skilled individuals. Doing so is even more difficult for those who lack adequate training or face special challenges, such as a disability.


The length and the quality of the schooling that individuals receive have an impact on students’ transition from education to work; as do labour-market conditions, the economic environment and demographics. For example, in some countries, young people traditionally complete schooling before they look for work; in others, education and employment are concurrent. In some countries, there is little difference between how young women and men experience their transitions from school to work, while in other countries, significant proportions of young women raise families full time after leaving the education system and do not enter employment.

To improve the transition from school to work, regardless of the economic climate, education systems should aim to ensure that individuals have the skills that are needed in the labour market. During recessions, public investment in education could be a sensible way to counterbalance unemployment and invest in future economic growth by building the needed skills. In addition, public investment could be directed towards potential employers in the form of incentives to hire young people

The transition from school to work, post-secondary education, and/or community adult living can be difficult for all students—and uniquely so for those with disabilities. The tasks of choosing a job and preparing for work, deciding to go to college or trade school, deciding where to live and with whom and other areas of decision making present youth with disabilities the challenge of having to make complex decisions. Professionals can assist students in making these decisions by involving students in meaningful assessments that will assist in matching the students’ abilities and preferences to appropriate academic, vocational and functional education programs.

Purpose of Transition Assessment

A clear understanding of the student’s strengths and needs is critical to developing and implementing effective transition plans. The purpose of transition assessment is to help Individualized Education Program (IEP) teams determine the appropriate courses of study and community/vocational experiences that the student will need to be successful in post-school goals. Whether a student is interested in pursuing postsecondary education, trade school, employment (supported included) or other activities associated with adult living, assessments will provide valuable information about the student’s abilities and deficits.

 Transition assessment can assist teams to

·        Meet IDEA mandate

·        Determine strengths, abilities, and deficits

·        Determine future planning needs and goals

·        Identify interests and preferences

·        Determine and evaluate appropriate instructional settings and supports

·        Determine level of self-determination skills

·        Determine level of independent living skills

·        Determine necessary accommodations, supports, and services

·        Develop goals/ objectives for the IEP and the transition component of the IEP

·        Identify supports (linkages) needed to accomplish goals

·        Track progress

·        Provide feedback

Types of Transition Assessments: 

·        Aptitude tests/ Achievement tests

·        Behavioral Assessment information

·        Informal interviews with student and family

·        Personality tests

·        Self-determination assessments

·        Vocational assessments

·        Interest inventories

·        Work-related temperament scales

·        Teacher observations

·        Formal assessments

·        Previous IEP and diagnostic summaries

·        Checklists/ questionnaires

Formal Transition Assessment Methods

Choosing Published Tests and Assessments There are a number of factors to consider when choosing tests and assessments. The ideal assessment instrument is 1) reliable, 2) fair, 3) valid, 4) cost effective, 5) of appropriate length, 6) well matched to the qualifications of the test administrator and 7) easy to administer and interpret. The instrument should also provide information on cultural considerations and accommodations for youth with disabilities. Results should be provided in easy to understand language and formats.

Adaptive Behavior Assessment information helps determine the type and amount of special assistance that people with disabilities may need. This assistance might be in the form of homebased support services for infants and children and their families, special education and vocational training for young people, and supported work or special living arrangements such as personal care attendants, group homes, or nursing homes for adults.

Each test relies on a respondent such as a parent, teacher, or care-provider to provide information about an individual being assessed. With some tests respondents are interviewed; with other tests respondents fill out a response booklet directly. Examples include:

·        The Scales of Independent Behavior - Revised (SIB-R)

·        The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales

·        AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scales (ABS)

·        The Inventory for Client and Agency Planning (ICAP)

Career Maturity or Readiness Tests are designed to measure developmental stages or tasks on a continuum. The degree of an individual’s career maturity is determined by the individual’s location on the developmental continuum. Examples include:

·        Career Maturity Inventory (CMI)

·        Career Thought Inventory (CTI)

·        Career Beliefs Inventory (CBI)

·        Career Development Inventory (CDI)

·       Career Decision Scale (CDS)

5.4 Social skills required at various developmental stages, suited to occasions – social competencies required for independent living in persons with mental retardation.

Social competence is the condition of possessing the social, emotional, and intellectual skills and behaviors needed to succeed as a member of society.

Social competence refers to the social, emotional, and cognitive skills and behaviors that children need for successful social adaptation. Despite this simple definition, social competence is an elusive concept, because the skills and behaviors required for healthy social development vary with the age of the child and with the demands of particular situations. A socially competent preschool child behaves differently from a socially competent adolescent. Conversely, the same behaviors (e.g., aggression, shyness) have different implications for social adaptation depending on the age of the child and the particulars of the social context.

A child's social competence depends upon a number of factors including the child's social skills, social awareness, and self-confidence. The term social skills describes the child's knowledge of and ability to use a variety of social behaviors that are appropriate to a given interpersonal situation and that are pleasing to others in each situation. The capacity to inhibit egocentric, impulsive, or negative social behavior is also a reflection of a child's social skills. The term emotional intelligence refers to the child's ability to understand the emotions of others, perceive subtle social cues, "read" complex social situations, and demonstrate insight about others' motivations and goals. Children who have a wide repertoire of social skills and who are socially aware and perceptive are likely to be socially competent.

Across these developmental periods, prosocial skills (friendly, cooperative, helpful behaviors) and self-control skills (anger management, negotiation skills, problem-solving skills) are key facets of social competence. In addition, however, developmental changes occur in the structure and quality of peer interactions that affect the complexity of skills contributing to social competence. That is, as children grow, their preferences for play change, and the thinking skills and language skills that provide a foundation for social competence also change. Hence, the kinds of interactions that children have with peers change qualitatively and quantitatively with development.


During the preschool years, social competence involves the ability to separate from parents and engage with peers in shared play activities, particularly fantasy play. As preschool children are just learning to coordinate their social behavior, their interactions are often short and marked by frequent squabbles, and friendships are less stable than at later developmental stages. In addition, physical rough-and-tumble play is common, particularly among boys. During the preschool and early grade school years, children are primarily focused on group acceptance and having companions with whom they can play.

Instructional strategies for addressing social competence include embedding the teaching of social skills in each day’s classroom routines and activities, as well as more explicit teaching of specific skills. Common social skills emphasized in early childhood curricula include those presented in Table


School age

By grade school, children begin to develop an interest in sports, structured board games, and group games with complex sets of rules. Being able to understand and follow game rules and being able to handle competition in appropriate ways (e.g., being a good sport) become important skills for social competence. Children play primarily in same-sex groups of friends and expect more stability in their friendships. Loyalty and dependability become important qualities of good friends.

During the middle to late grade school years, children begin to distinguish "regular" friends from "best" friends. The establishment of close, best friendships is an important developmental milestone. That is, in addition to gaining acceptance from a group of peers, one of the hallmarks of social competence is the ability to form and maintain satisfying close friendships.

During the preadolescent and early adolescent years, communication (including sending notes, calling on the phone, and "hanging out") becomes a major focus for peer interactions. Increasingly, social competence involves the willingness and ability to share thoughts and feelings with one another, especially for girls. When adolescent friends squabble, their conflicts typically center on issues such as gossiping, disclosing secrets, or loyalty and perceived betrayal. It is at this stage that friends and romantic partners consistently rival parents as the primary sources of intimacy and social support.

Many of the positive characteristics that promote popularity (such as cooperativeness, friendliness, and consideration for others) also assist children in developing and maintaining friendships. Friendships emerge when children share similar activities and interests and, in addition, when they develop a positive and mutual bond between them. Group acceptance and close friendships follow different timetables and serve different developmental functions, with the need for group acceptance emerging during the early grade school years and filling a need for belonging and the need for close friends emerging in preadolescence to meet newfound needs for affection, alliance, and intimacy outside the family. Key features of close friendships are reciprocity and similarity, mutual intimacy, and social support.

Interventions to promote social competence

Different strategies may be needed to help children develop social competencies and establish positive peer relations depending on the age of the child and the type of peer problem being experienced. Different children have different needs when it comes to helping them get along better with others and making friends. The age of the child, the kinds of behaviors that are part of the problem, and the reasons for the friendship problem may all affect the helping strategy.

One strategy involves social skill training. Observations have revealed that children who are well liked by peers typically show helpful, courteous, and considerate behavior. The purpose of social skill training is to help unpopular children learn to treat their peers in positive ways. The specific skills taught in different programs vary depending upon the age and type of child involved. Commonly taught skills include helping, sharing, and cooperation. Often children are taught how to enter a group, how to be a good group participant, how to be a fair player (e.g., following rules, taking turns), and how to have a conversation with peers. The skills might also include anger management, negotiation, and conflict resolution skills. Problem-solving skills (e.g., identifying the problem, considering alternative solutions, choosing a solution, and making a plan) are often included in social skill training programs. Sometimes social skill training is done individually with children, but often it is done in a small group. A particular skill concept is discussed, and children may watch a short film or hear a story that illustrates the usefulness of the skill. They then have the opportunity to practice the skill during activities or role-plays with other children in the group. A trained group leader helps guide the children in their use of the skill and provides support and positive feedback to help children become more natural and spontaneous in socially skillful behavior.

Another intervention strategy focuses on helping children who are having trouble getting along with others because of angry, aggressive, or bossy behavior. It can be difficult to suppress aggressive and disruptive behaviors in peer settings for several reasons. For one thing, these behaviors often "work" in the sense that they can be instrumental in achieving desired goals. By complaining loudly, hitting, or otherwise using force or noise, children may be able to get access to a toy they want, or they may be able to get peers to stop doing something obnoxious to them. In this type of situation, an adult's expressed disapproval may suppress the behavior, but the behavior is likely to emerge again in situations where an adult supervisor is not present. Often contracts and point systems are used to suppress aggressive behavior and bossiness; however, positive skill training must be used in conjunction with behavior management in order to provide the child with alternative skills to use in situations requiring negotiations with peers. Often parents are included in programs to help children develop better anger management skills and to help children reduce fighting. Trained counselors, educators, or psychologists work with parents to help them find positive discipline strategies and positive communication skills to promote child anger management and conflict resolution skills.

A third helping strategy focuses on finding a good social "niche" for the child. Large, unstructured peer group settings (such as recess) are particularly difficult situations for many of the children who have peer problems. These children need a structured, smaller peer interaction setting in which an adult's support is available to guide positive peer interaction. Finding a good social niche for some children can be a difficult task, but an important one. Sometimes a teacher can organize cooperative learning groups that help an isolated child make friends in the classroom. Sometimes parents can help by inviting potential friends over to play or by getting their child involved in a social activity outside of school that is rewarding (such as a church group, a sports group, or a scouting club). Providing positive opportunities for friendship development is important, as it provides children with an appropriate and positive learning environment for the development of social competence.

5.5 Recreation and leisure– need–age appropriate activities – individuals and group situations for persons with mental retardation.

Definitions of Leisure

There is debate about how to define leisure. However, there is a general consensus that there are three primary ways in which to consider leisure: leisure as time, leisure as activity, and leisure as state of mind.

·        Leisure as Time

By this definition leisure is time free from obligations, work (paid and unpaid), and tasks required for existing (sleeping, eating). Leisure time is residual time. Some people argue it is the constructive use of free time. While many may view free time as all nonworking hours, only a small amount of time spent away from work is actually free from other obligations that are necessary for existence, such as sleeping and eating.

·        Leisure as Activity

Leisure can also be viewed as activities that people engage in during their free time—activities that are not work oriented or that do not involve life maintenance tasks such as housecleaning or sleeping. Leisure as activity encompasses the activities that we engage in for reasons as varied as relaxation, competition, or growth and may include reading for pleasure, meditating, painting, and participating in sports. This definition gives no heed to how a person feels while doing the activity; it simply states that certain activities qualify as leisure because they take place during time away from work and are not engaged in for existence. However, as has been argued by many, it is extremely difficult to come up with a list of activities that everyone agrees represents leisure—to some an activity might be a leisure activity and to others it might not necessarily be a leisure activity. Therefore, with this definition the line between work and leisure is not clear in that what is leisure to some may be work to others and vice versa.

·        Leisure as State of Mind

Unlike the definitions of leisure as time or activity, the definition of leisure as state of mind is much more subjective in that it considers the individual's perception of an activity. Concepts such as perceived freedom, intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, and positive affect are critical to determining whether an experience is leisure or not leisure.

Perceived freedom refers to an individual's ability to choose the activity or experience in that the individual is free from other obligations as well as has the freedom to act without control from others. Perceived freedom also involves the absence of external constraints to participation.

The second requirement of leisure as state of mind, intrinsic motivation, means that the person is moved from within to participate. The person is not influenced by external factors (e.g., people or reward) and the experience results in personal feelings of satisfaction, enjoyment, and gratification.

Perceived competence is also critical to leisure defined as state of mind. Perceived competence refers to the skills people believe they possess and whether their skill levels are in line with the degree of challenge inherent in an experience. Perceived competence relates strongly to satisfaction, and for successful participation to occur, the skill-to-challenge ratio must be appropriate.

Positive affect, the final key component of leisure as state of mind, refers to a person's sense of choice, or the feeling people have when they have some control over the process that is tied to the experience. Positive affect refers to enjoyment, and this enjoyment comes from a sense of choice.

What may be a leisure experience for one person may not be for another; whether an experience is leisure depends on many factors. Enjoyment, motivation, and choice are three of the most important of these factors. Therefore, when different individuals engage in the same activity, their state of mind can differ drastically.

Definition of Play

Unlike leisure, play has a more singular definition. Play is imaginative, intrinsically motivated, nonserious, freely chosen, and actively engaging. While most people see play as the domain of children, adults also play, although often their play is more entwined with rules and regulations, which calls into question how playful their play really is. On the other hand, children's play is typified by spontaneity, joyfulness, and inhibition and is done not as a means to an end but for its inherent pleasure.

Definition of Recreation

There is some consensus on the definition of recreation. Recreation is an activity that people engage in during their free time, that people enjoy, and that people recognize as having socially redeeming values. Unlike leisure, recreation has a connotation of being morally acceptable not just to the individual but also to society as a whole, and thus we program for those activities within that context. While recreation activities can take many forms, they must contribute to society in a way that society deems acceptable. This means that activities deemed socially acceptable for recreation can change over time.

Examples of recreational activities are endless and include sports, music, games, travel, reading, arts and crafts, and dance. The specific activity performed is less important than the reason for performing the activity, which is the outcome. For most the overarching desired outcome is recreation or restoration. Participants hope that their recreation pursuits can help them to balance their lives and refresh themselves from their work as well as other mandated activities such as housecleaning, child rearing, and so on.

People also see recreation as a social instrument because of its contribution to society. That is, professionals have long used recreation programs and services to produce socially desirable outcomes, such as the wise use of free time, physical fitness, and positive youth development. The organized development of recreation programs to meet a variety of physical, psychological, and social needs has led to recreation playing a role as a social instrument for well-being and, in some cases, change.

Psychological benefits of recreation activity are as follows:

·        perceived sense of freedom, independence, and autonomy,

·        enhanced self-competence through improved sense of self-worth, self-reliance, and self-confidence,

·        better ability to socialize with others, including greater tolerance and understanding,

·        enriched capabilities for team membership,

·        heightened creative ability,

·        improved expressions of and reflection on personal spiritual ideals,

·        greater adaptability and resiliency,

·        better sense of humor,

·        enhanced perceived quality of life,

·        more balanced competitiveness and a more positive outlook on life.

Involvement in recreation activities releases stress and tension from the perils of society. Braum (1991) recalls the findings of researchers that state,"relaxation tends to alleviate many of the symptoms of stress. Activities that fill leisure time, performed within a group, strengthen social support ties known to negate stress". The idea of choice in leisure presents opportunities where one can recreate.

One's environment can be a determinant to stress reduction. Natural environments can be pleasant, relaxing, and stress-reducing for many people, but large urban cities also provide the same experience. Having too much free time and limited access to various recreation activities of one's liking can produce stress. So, for those individuals living out in the country who have access to transportation, the joy of partaking in cultural events in the city on a weekly or monthly basis provides the opportunity for a stress-limited lifestyle. The same can be said for people living in the city who recreate in the country.

Social integration of children and adults with disabilities into community recreation programs offers the chance to develop a positive self-image through successful experiences and satisfying relationships with peers. McGill (1984) reports that integrated play opportunities are stimulating and highly motivating experiences for disabled children, offering them opportunities to imitate and model the play behavior of nondisabled peers. Social integration also enhances relationships between family members. We've all heard of the old adage,"The family that plays together stays together." This adage infers that leisure experiences promote family satisfaction and stability. Recreation activities provide opportunities for couples and families to interact and negotiate individual and collective interests.

The person with disabilities, upon disclosure, thus needs to educate the professional about what accommodations and/or program modifications should be arranged to enable full participation in recreation programs. This social interaction not only contributes awareness of this situation to another person but also demonstrates how important it is for individuals with disabilities to participate in a particular recreation activity like everyone else.